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High-Efficiency SiC Power Conversion: Base Drivers for Bipolar Junction Transistors and Performance Impacts on Series-Resonant Converters
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7922-3407
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis aims to bring an understanding to the silicon carbide (SiC) bipolar junction transistor (BJT). SiC power devices are superior to the silicon IGBT in several ways. They are for instance, able to operate with higher efficiency, at higher frequencies, and at higher junction temperatures. From a system point of view the SiC power device could decrease the cost and complexity of cooling, reduce the size and weight of the system, and enable the system to endure harsher environments.

The three main SiC power device designs are discussed with a focus on the BJT. The SiC BJT is compared to the SiC junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and the metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). The potential of employing SiC power devices in applications, ranging from induction heating to high-voltage direct current (HVDC), is presented.

The theory behind the state-of-the-art dual-source (2SRC) base driver that was presented by Rabkowski et al. a few years ago is described. This concept of proportional base drivers is introduced with a focus on the discretized proportional base drivers (DPBD). By implementing the DPBD concept and building a prototype it is shown that the steady-state consumption of the base driver can be reduced considerably.

 The aspects of the reverse conduction of the SiC BJT are presented. It is shown to be of importance to consider the reduced voltage drop over the base-emitter junction.

Last the impact of SiC unipolar and bipolar devices in series-resonant (SLR) converters is presented. Two full-bridges are designed and constructed, one with SiC MOSFETs utilizing the body diode for reverse conduction during the dead-time, and the second with SiC BJTs with anti-parallel SiC Schottky diodes. It is found that the SiC power devices, with their absence of tail current, are ideal devices to fully utilize the soft-switching properties that the SLR converters offer. The SiC MOSFET benefits from its possibility to utilize reverse conduction with a low voltage drop. It is also found that the size of capacitance of the snubbers can be reduced compare to state-of-the-art silicon technology. High switching frequencies of 200 kHz are possible while still keeping the losses low. A dead-time control strategy for each device is presented. The dual control (DuC) algorithm is tested with the SiC devices and compared to frequency modulation (FM).

The analytical investigations presented in this thesis are confirmed by experimental results on several laboratory prototype converters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , xiv, 71 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2015:024
Keyword [en]
Silicon Carbide, Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT), Resonant converter, Series-resonant converter (SLR), Base drive circuits, High- Efficiency Converters, High-Frequency Converters
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168163ISBN: 978-91-7595-601-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-168163DiVA: diva2:814732
Public defence
2015-06-12, H1, Teknikringen 33, KTH, Stockholm, 09:45 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150529

Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-05-27 Last updated: 2015-05-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Performance tests of a 4, 1x4, 1mm(2) SiC LCVJFET for a DC/DC boost converter application
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance tests of a 4, 1x4, 1mm(2) SiC LCVJFET for a DC/DC boost converter application
2011 (English)In: SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS 2010 / [ed] Monakhov EV; Hornos T; Svensson BG, 2011, Vol. 679-680, 722-725 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A 4.1x4.1mm(2), 100m Omega 1,2kV lateral channel vertical junction field effect transistor (LCVJFET) built in silicon carbide (SiC) from SiCED, to use as the active switch component in a high-temperature operation DC/DC-boost converter, has been investigated. The switching loss for room temperature (RT) and on-state resistance (Ron) for RT up to 170 degrees C is investigated. Since the SiC VJFET has a buried body diode it is also ideal to use instead of a switch and diode setup. The voltage drop over the body diode decreases slightly with a higher temperature. A short-circuit test has also been conducted, which shows a high ruggedness.

Series
Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476 ; 679-680
Keyword
SIC, JFET, VJFET, Normally-on, switching losses
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-35627 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.679-680.722 (DOI)000291673500174 ()2-s2.0-84953385783 (Scopus ID)
Conference
8th European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, Sundvolden Conf Ctr, Oslo, NORWAY, AUG 29-SEP 02, 2010
Note
QC 20110704Available from: 2011-07-04 Created: 2011-07-04 Last updated: 2015-05-29Bibliographically approved
2. High-Power Modular Multilevel Converters With SiC JFETs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Power Modular Multilevel Converters With SiC JFETs
Show others...
2012 (English)In: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107, Vol. 27, no 1, 28-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper studies the possibility of building a modular multilevel converter (M2C) using silicon carbide (SiC) switches. The main focus is on a theoretical investigation of the conduction losses of such a converter and a comparison to a corresponding converter with silicon-insulated gate bipolar transistors. Both SiC BJTs and JFETs are considered and compared in order to choose the most suitable technology. One of the submodules of a down-scaled 3 kVA prototype M2C is replaced with a submodule with SiC JFETs without antiparallel diodes. It is shown that the diode-less operation is possible with the JFETs conducting in the negative direction, leaving the possibility to use the body diode during the switching transients. Experimental waveforms for the SiC submodule verify the feasibility during normal steady-state operation. The loss estimation shows that a 300 MW M2C for high-voltage direct current transmission would potentially have an efficiency of approximately 99.8% if equipped with future 3.3 kV 1.2 kA SiC JFETs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2012
Keyword
Diodeless operation, high voltage directcurrent transmission, modular multilevel converter, SiC JFETs, silicon carbide
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-52687 (URN)10.1109/TPEL.2011.2155671 (DOI)000298048500001 ()2-s2.0-83655192819 (Scopus ID)
Note
© 2011 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. QC 20111220Available from: 2011-12-20 Created: 2011-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Low-Loss High-Performance Base-Drive Unit for SiC BJTs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-Loss High-Performance Base-Drive Unit for SiC BJTs
2012 (English)In: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107, Vol. 27, no 5, 2633-2643 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Driving a silicon carbide bipolar junction transistor is not a trivial issue, if low drive power consumption and short-switching times are desired. A dual-source base-drive unit with a speed-up capacitor consisting of a low-and a high-voltage source is, therefore, proposed in this paper. As a significant base current is required during the conduction state, the driver power consumption is higher than for other semiconductor switches. In the presented solution, the steady-state base current is provided by a low-voltage source and is optimized for lowpower losses. On the contrary, a second source with a higher voltage and speed-up capacitor is used in order to improve the switching performance of the device. The proposed driver has experimentally been compared to other standard driver solutions by using a double-pulse circuit and a 2-kW dc/dc boost converter. Switching times of 20 ns at turn-ON and 35 ns at turn-OFF were recorded. Finally, the efficiency of the converter was determined experimentally at various switching frequencies. From power loss measurements at 100-kHz switching frequency using the proposed driver in a 2-kW dc/dc boost converter, it was found that the efficiency was approximately 99.0%. In the same operating point, the driver power consumption was only 0.08% of the rated power.

Keyword
Base-driver circuit, base power consumption, dc-dc power converters, Silicon carbide (SiC) BJT
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-93372 (URN)10.1109/TPEL.2011.2171722 (DOI)000301195600039 ()2-s2.0-84858051217 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20120416Available from: 2012-04-16 Created: 2012-04-16 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
4. A Discretized Proportional Base Driver for Silicon Carbide Bipolar Junction Transistors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Discretized Proportional Base Driver for Silicon Carbide Bipolar Junction Transistors
Show others...
2014 (English)In: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107, Vol. 29, no 5, 2408-2417 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Silicon carbide (SiC) bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) require a continuous base current in the on-state. This base current is usually made constant and is corresponding to the maximum collector current and maximum junction temperature that is foreseen in a certain application. In this paper, a discretized proportional base driver is proposed which will reduce, for the right application, the steady-state power consumption of the base driver. The operation of the proposed base driver has been verified experimentally, driving a 1200-V/40-A SiC BJT in a dc-dc boost converter. In order to determine the potential reduction of the power consumption of the base driver, a case with a dc-dc converter in an ideal electric vehicle driving the new European drive cycle has been investigated. It is found that the steady-state power consumption of the base driver can be reduced by approximately 60%. The total reduction of the driver consumption is 3459 J during the drive cycle, which is slightly more than the total on-state losses for the SiC BJTs used in the converter.

Keyword
Bipolar junction transistor (BJT), base driver, discretized base driver, driver, proportional base driver, proportional driver, silicon carbide (SiC)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-141277 (URN)10.1109/TPEL.2013.2274331 (DOI)000329991500027 ()2-s2.0-84893146106 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140213

Available from: 2014-02-13 Created: 2014-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. An experimental analysis on how the dead-time of SiC BJT and SiC MOSFET impacts the losses in a high-frequency resonant converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An experimental analysis on how the dead-time of SiC BJT and SiC MOSFET impacts the losses in a high-frequency resonant converter
Show others...
2014 (English)In: 2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, 6911042- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Active control of the dead-time in a SLR converter is in this paper shown to be of great importance. The efficiency of the full-bridge will increase if the dead-time control is made in the right way. Different control algorithms are shown to work well for different power switches. For the SiC MOSFET and the SiC BJT the control algorithms are tested experimentally.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2014
Keyword
Silicon Carbid (SiC)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166546 (URN)10.1109/EPE.2014.6911042 (DOI)000361460005028 ()2-s2.0-84923870193 (Scopus ID)978-147993015-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE-ECCE Europe 2014, Lappeenranta, Finland, 26 August 2014 through 28 August 2014
Note

QC 20150511

Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-11 Last updated: 2015-10-16Bibliographically approved
6. An experimental analysis on how the dead-time of SiC BJT and SiC MOSFET impacts the losses in a high-frequency resonant converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An experimental analysis on how the dead-time of SiC BJT and SiC MOSFET impacts the losses in a high-frequency resonant converter
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168252 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-05-29 Last updated: 2015-05-29Bibliographically approved
7. Dual control used in series-loaded resonant converter with SiC devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dual control used in series-loaded resonant converter with SiC devices
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168253 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-05-29 Last updated: 2015-05-29Bibliographically approved
8. Experimental evaluation of SiC BJT and SiC MOSFET in a series resonantconverter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evaluation of SiC BJT and SiC MOSFET in a series resonantconverter
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168254 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-05-29 Last updated: 2015-05-29Bibliographically approved

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