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Geochemistry of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater and surface-water in the southern part of the Poopó Lake basin, Bolivian Altiplano
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. (KTH - International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group)
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2016 (English)In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 2-3, 104-116 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Groundwaters from shallow aquifers and surface water from rivers of the southern part of Poopó Lake basin within the Bolivian Altiplano have significant quality problems such as high salinity and high concentrations of arsenic (As). The extent of As contamination is observed in the studied groundwater over large parts of the study area. Surface-waters are generally alkaline (pH 8.2–8.7) and oxidizing with dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in a range of 2.5–6.6 mg/L The water chemistry is predominantly of Na–Cl–HCO3–type, with concentrations of dissolved As in the range of 8.6–117 µg/L with As(V) as the main aqueous species. The concentration of Li varies in the range of 1.1–4.4 mg/L, while other trace elements occur in low concentrations. Groundwaters have a very large range of chemical compositions and the spatial variability of As concentrations is considerable over distances of a few km; dissolved As in groundwater spans over 4 orders of magnitude (3–3497 µg/L), while concentrations of Li have a range of 0.05–31.6 mg/L. Among the investigated drinking-water wells, 90% exceed the WHO guideline value of 10 µg As/L. Electrical conductivity ranges between 295 and 20,900 µS/cm; high salinity is resulting from evaporation under ambient semi-arid climatic conditions. The pH values of the groundwaters are generally slightly alkaline (5.5–8.7) and universally oxidizing, under these conditions As(V) is the prevalent specie. Groundwater As correlates positively with pH, electrical conductivity, Cl, Na+, HCO3 , Ca2+ and SO4 2−. Weathering/dissolution of carbonates, evaporites, halite and plagioclase minerals incorporate Na+ and HCO3 in solution with consequent pH and alkalinity increase; these are favorable conditions for high mobility of As species. Stable isotopic signatures indicate recharge at the Altiplano with seasonal effects. All surface water and some groundwater samples are enriched due to evaporation, which probably increased concentration of dissolved As.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016. Vol. 2-3, 104-116 p.
Keyword [en]
Altiplano, Arsenic, Bolivia, Drinking water quality, Geochemistry
National Category
Environmental Sciences Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168236DOI: 10.1016/j.gsd.2016.04.002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84979665772OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-168236DiVA: diva2:815065
Note

QC 20161215

Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-05-29 Last updated: 2016-12-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Hydrogeochemistry of Naturally Occurring Arsenic and Other Trace Elements in the Central Bolivian Altiplano: Sources, mobility and drinking water quality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogeochemistry of Naturally Occurring Arsenic and Other Trace Elements in the Central Bolivian Altiplano: Sources, mobility and drinking water quality
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Bolivian Altiplano (BA) is a high plateau located in the western part of the country at an altitude of 3,600 to 3,900 meters above sea level and is bordered by the Eastern and Western Cordillera. Within the BA there is a large endorheic hydrologic system linking the Titicaca Lake in the north the Desaguadero River, lakes Uru-Uru and Poopó in the central part; and the Lacajahuira River and Coipasa and Uyuni salt pans in the south. Several mineralized areas, especially in the Eastern Cordillera, have been intensively exploited for centuries for the extraction of silver, gold, and tin from polymetallic sulfide ore deposits. Presently many urban centers are also contributing for an extensive contamination in localized areas; especially the Poopó Lake and some rivers are affected by high loads of wastewater and solid waste, in addition to the release of heavy metals and arsenic (As) due to acid mine drainage.

The presence of As in the BA was known to be related to mining only, but recent studies revealed that As of geogenic origin also contributing to the elevated concentration of As in surface and groundwater. The Poopó Lake basin is characterized by a semiarid climate. Geologic formations predominantly are of volcanic origin and groundwater flow is sluggish in nature. These environmental settings have generated substantially elevated concen- trations of geogenic As and other trace elements in surface and groundwater. Both surface and groundwater used for drinking water have high concentrations of As that by far exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. The overall objective of the present study has been focused on the determination of the sources and principal mechanisms for mobilization of geogenic As into surface and groundwater of the Poopó Lake basin area. More specifically, this study has determined the spatial distribution and the extent of As contamination in surface and groundwater; chemical composition of surface and groundwater, rock and sediment; major geochemical mechanisms for As mobilization from solid phase to aqueous phases. This study also made an assessment of drinking water quality in rural areas within the Poopó Lake basin.

Arsenic concentration exceeded the WHO guideline and national regulations for drinking water of 10 µg/L in 85% of the samples collected from the area around the Poopó Lake (n=27) and 90% of the samples from the southern part of the lake basin (n=42). Groundwater samples collected from drinking water wells had As concentrations up to 623 µg/L, while samples collected from piezometers had even higher up to 3,497 µg/L. Highest concentration in river water samples was observed 117 µg/L. Alkaline nature of water (median pH 8.3 for groundwater and 9.0 for surface water), predominance of Na-Cl-HCO3 water type and elevated Eh reflecting oxidized character has been revealed by As(V) as the major species in As speciation. Different rock types were analyzed for their As content and the highest concentration of 27 mg/kg was found in a coral limestone sample. In evaporate it was 13 mg and 11 mg As/kg was measured in calcareous sandstone. Elevated concentration of As was also observed in sediment cores collected from two drilling sites; 51 mg/kg in Condo K and 36 mg/kg in Quillacas. Physical and chemical weathering of volcanic rocks, limestone, carbonates and plagioclase minerals enhance the supply of Na+ and HCO3- into solution and as a consequence pH and alkalinity increase, which in turn, favor As desorption from solid mineral surfaces (especially Fe(III) oxyhydr- oxides) and therefore dissolved As in water is increased.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. x, 39 p.
Series
TRITA-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 2015:03
Keyword
Arsenic; Aquifer; Bolivian Altiplano; Boron; Drinking water quality; Geochemistry; Geogenic; Groundwater; Lithium; Trace Elements
National Category
Geochemistry Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168190 (URN)978-91-7595-580-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-11, Sal V1, Teknikringen 76, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 7500707606
Note

QC 20150529

Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-05-27 Last updated: 2015-05-29Bibliographically approved

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