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A Mathematical Modeling Study of the Influence of Small Amounts of KCl Solution Tracers on Mixing in Water and its Residence Time Distribution in a Continuous Flow Reactor-Metallurgical Tundish
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7953-1127
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1919-9964
State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
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2015 (English)In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 137, 914-937 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

In an earlier research (Chen et al., 2015a) a mathematical model was established to simulate tracer mixing (a KCl solution). The predicted Residence Time Distribution (RTD) curves showed good agreements with experimental RID curves for larger amounts of tracer additions. However, for smaller additions (50 mL) of a KCl solution into water, the predicted RID curves tended to deviate from the experimental RTD curves for a tundish (a continuous flow reactor). The current paper focuses on the possibilities that the predictability for smaller additions could be resolved by using a suitable turbulence model. The performance of five different turbulence models representing different modeling techniques and levels of complexity were tested in combination with using a density-coupled mixed composition fluid model to simulate the mixing, i.e. the following models: LVEL, Chen-Kim k-epsilon, MMK k-epsilon, Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model (EARSM), and Large Eddy Simulation (LES): Wall-Adapting Local Eddy-viscosity (WALE). The results indicate that models that tend to resolve turbulence structures renders better predictions of the mixing process of smaller tracer amounts. In addition, the influence of different tracer amounts on the flow in tundish was assessed. The simulation results for 75 mL, 100 mL, 150 mL, and 250 mL KCl tracer additions were compared. The results showed that in an upward flow the tracer will, sooner or later (dependent on the tracer amount), sink to the bottom. This is due to the higher density of the tracer compared to the density of water. From a physical modeling perspective, this issue is like the "butterfly effect". It is showed that for a slight increase of the amount of tracer, the flow field might be disturbed. This, in turn, will result in a shifted RTD curve.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2015. Vol. 137, 914-937 p.
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168398DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2015.07.037ISI: 000361772400084Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84939812058OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-168398DiVA: diva2:816218
Note

Updated from "Manuscript" to "Article". QC 20151207

Available from: 2015-06-02 Created: 2015-06-02 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Some Aspects on Macroscopic Mixing in a Tundish
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Some Aspects on Macroscopic Mixing in a Tundish
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Two aspects on macroscopic mixing in a continuous flow system – metallurgical tundish were studied. Specifically, 1) the first focus was on salt solution tracer mixing, which is important for tundish design from perspectives of tracer technology and Residence Time Distributions (RTD) as well as for the understanding of the macroscopic mixing in tundishes. The different amounts of salt solution tracer mixing in a tundish were studied by using both physical models and mathematical models. The disturbance of KCl salt tracer on the flow in the tundish with respect to different amounts is like the “butterfly effect”, i.e. only a slight increase of the amount of tracer, the flow field might be disturbed. This, in turn, will result in a shifted RTD curve. 2) The second focus was on Eulerian modeling of inclusions macroscopic transport and removal, which is important for tundish design from perspectives of inclusions removal and to provide information of macroscopic removal of inclusions. In the study, an approach that combined the meso-scale inclusions deposition at turbulent boundary layers of steel-slag interface and the macroscopic transport of inclusions in the tundish was used. The theoretical calculation results showed that the effect of the roughness on the deposition velocity of small inclusions (radius of 1 μm) were more pronounced than that for the big inclusions (up to the radius of 9 μm). The dynamic inclusions removal studies showed that the tundish with a weir and a dam exhibited a better performance with respect to the removal of bigger inclusions (radii of 5 μm, 7 μm and 9 μm) than that of the case without weirs and dams. However, the tundish without weirs and dams showed a higher removal ratio of smaller inclusions (radius of 1 μm).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. x, 24 p.
Keyword
continuous reactor, tundish, tracer, macroscopic mixing, water model, CFD, turbulence models, inclusions removal, inclusions deposition, dynamic removal
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168402 (URN)978-91-7595-632-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-08-28, B2, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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Note

QC 20150615

Available from: 2015-06-15 Created: 2015-06-02 Last updated: 2015-06-15Bibliographically approved

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