Aspects of probabalistic serviceability limit state design of dry deep mixing
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
An expanding population and increased need for infrastructure increasingly necessitate construction on surfaces with poor soil conditions. To facilitate the construction of buildings, roads and railroads in areas with poor soil conditions, these areas are often improved by means of foundation engineering. Constructions that are fairly limited in scope are often founded on shallow or deep foundations. However, these methods are relatively expensive and thus not applicable for large-scale constructions like roads and railroads. A cost-effective way to deal with poor soil conditions is to use ground improvement. This thesis deals with a ground improvement method called deep mixing (DD)using lime-cement columns.
Lime-cement columns are manufactured by pushing a mechanical mixing tool to the desired depth, with the tool then rotated and retracted while a lime-cement binder is distributed into soil, forming lime-cement columns. Because of the complex mixing process and inherent soil variability, soil improved by DD shows high variability with respect to strength and deformation properties. Due to this high variability, it is difficult to predict the properties in advance; it is therefore important to verify the properties after installation. In Sweden, this is normally done using the column penetration test (KKK) method.
Current design praxis considers evaluated mean values in the design, and the effect of variability and uncertainties is dealt with by using a sufficiently high total factor of safety. A more rational approach for dealing with the effect of variability and uncertainties on the reliability of a mechanical system is to include them as parameters in the design model. This can be done by using reliability-based design (RRR). A major incentive for using 𝑅𝑅𝑅 is that lower variability in design properties produces higher design values. This is important since it encourages contractors to improve their manufacturing methodologies because 𝑅𝑅𝑅 allows more homogenous columns to be assigned higher design values. Reliability-based design is also in line with Eurocode 7, which states that the selection of the characteristic values for geotechnical parameters shall take the variability of the measured property values into account.
The first part of this doctoral thesis deals with test methods and quantification of the strength variability of soil improved by lime-cement columns. Tip resistances from three different test sites using three different penetration test methods – the cone penetration test, the column penetration test and the total-sounding test – are analysed and quantified in terms of means, variances and scale of fluctuations. The second part introduces RRR in serviceability limit state (SSS) design, using First Order Reliability Methods (FFFF) and Monte-Carlo simulations.
Summarizing the most important findings and conclusions from this study:
- The scale of fluctuation was estimated to be 0.2-0.7 m and 0-3 m in the vertical and horizontal direction, respectively.
- The relation between cone tip resistances measured using the cone penetration test and column penetration test does not correspond to the cone factors proposed in previous studies and in the Swedish Design Guidelines.
- The agreement between the column penetration test and total-sounding test was found to be “good enough”. It is therefore suggested that the total-sounding test be used as a complement to the column penetration test in evaluating the average strength properties of a group of medium- and high-strength lime-cement columns.
- Reliability-based design is a rational approach to incorporate strength and deformation parameter variability with an SSS design.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , xii, 48 p.
TRITA-JOB PHD, ISSN 1650-9501 ; 1019
Research subject Civil and Architectural Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168596OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-168596DiVA: diva2:817375
2015-06-10, Sal B1, Brinellvägen 23, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Länsivaara, Tim, Professor
Larsson, Stefan, Professor
QC 201506052015-06-052015-06-052016-07-05Bibliographically approved
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