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Light scattering for analysis of thermal stress induced deformation in thin metal films
KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
1997 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Today, thin film based devices are found in a wide field of applications. The main reasons are that thin film technology enables access to unique physical properties and possibilities to miniaturize devices. Thin film devices are generally described in terms such as electrical, optical and magnetical properties. However, the lifetime of these devices is often limited by mechanical stresses causing plastic deformation. An effect of the plastic deformation is hillocking where isolated features are created on the film surface. The continual need to improve performance, reduce size as well as cost is pushing thin film structures close to or beyond present fundamental understanding. Further progress requires better understanding of basic phenomena where analytical methods for characterization of thin film deformation play a crucial role.

To follow the initial hillock formation during thermal treatments it is essential to have a suitable tool for achieving real-time measurements with high sensitivity over a relatively large area that does not considerably affect the film surface. Methods based on light scattering are generally very sensitive to changes in the surface topography and allow contact free measurements at high speed. In this thesis light scattering methods are investigated as tools for stress analysis of thin metal films.

Detection and characterization of isolated surface features using angular resolved scattering has been investigated by simulations. Results were used in development of an optical instrument for simultaneous measurements of initial hillocking and changes in overall film stress. The instrument combines light scattering and laser beam deflection techniques. It is shown how the onset of initial hillocking in aluminum films is accompanied by stress relaxation. Real-time dark field microscopy was demonstrated as a technique for analysis of the lateral hillock distribution. Analysis of the distribution show clustering of hillocks which is supposed to be related to the microstructure of the film.

It is demonstrated that copper inclusion can be used to strengthen aluminum films to withstand higher stress before hillocking occurs. The copper content also reduces the grain size and thereby the surface roughness, which results in good or even better optical performance than for pure aluminum films.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Fysik , 1997. , 57 p.
Series
TRITA-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2168
Keyword [en]
thin metal films, aluminum, optical quality, hillock, initial stage, lateral distribution, thermal stress, light scattering, instrument.
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-2547ISBN: 91-7170-181-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-2547DiVA: diva2:8174
Public defence
1997-09-16, 00:00
Note

NR 20140805

Available from: 2000-01-01 Created: 2000-01-01 Last updated: 2016-11-23Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
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  • Other locale
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