Chromium released from leather - II: the importance of environmental parameters
2015 (English)In: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 72, no 5, 275-285 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Background. Approximately 1-3% of the adult population in Europe are allergic to chromium (Cr). A new restriction in Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) based on the ISO 17075 standard has recently been adopted in the EU to limit Cr(VI) in consumer and occupational leather products to < 3 mg/kg. Objectives. To investigate the influence of storage conditions [relative humidity, temperature, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and duration] on Cr release, and to assess several parameters relevant for occupational exposure (repeated exposure, wear, alkaline solutions, and sequential wet and dry exposures). Material and methods. A leather of relevance for work gloves was investigated for its release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) under these different experimental conditions. Results. Relative humidity (water content in leather) during storage prior to Cr extraction was the single most important parameter. Cr(VI) levels could vary from non-detectable to levels significantly exceeding the restriction limit, depending on the relative humidity. Leather contact with alkaline solution and UV irradiation during storage could increase the Cr(VI) levels in subsequent extractions. Conclusions. The amount of Cr(VI) in leather is not an intrinsic property, but is influenced by environmental conditions of relevance for occupations and skin exposure.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 72, no 5, 275-285 p.
allergic contact dermatitis, chromium(III), chromium(VI), environment, humidity, leather, metals, occupational
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-169344DOI: 10.1111/cod.12334ISI: 000353043300002PubMedID: 25630767ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84927690635OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-169344DiVA: diva2:820765
QC 201506122015-06-122015-06-122015-06-12Bibliographically approved