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Nucleation and growth of martensite in steel
KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7656-9733
1997 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 1997. , 41 p.
Keyword [en]
martensite, Fe-alloys, α-martensite, athermal martensite, isothermal martensite, plate martensite, lath martensite, nucleation, growth, thermodynamics, plateau temperature, driving force, activation energy, bainite, Widmanstätten α, diffusive mechanism, displacive mechanism, ε-martensite
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-2583ISBN: 91-7170-201-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-2583DiVA: diva2:8225
Public defence
1997-11-28, 00:00 (English)
Note
QC 20100429Available from: 2000-01-01 Created: 2000-01-01 Last updated: 2010-04-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Bainite in the light of rapid continuous cooling information
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bainite in the light of rapid continuous cooling information
1996 (English)In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 27, no 6, 1501-1512 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rapid continuous cooling of pure iron can produce three different transformations yielding acicular structures: Widmanstätten a, lath martensite, and lenticular martensite. The information on their extensions into binary systems with carbon, nickel, and chromium has been reviewed, and admittedly rough methods have been used for estimating growth rates in order to examine the role of diffusion. The effect of alloying elements on their plateau temperatures and growth rates indicates that Widmanstätten a in Fe-C alloys grows under conditions close to local equilibrium for carbon, and it is suggested that the same should hold for edgewise growth of bainite. In Fe-Ni alloys, there are indications that Widmanstätten α grows under a considerable solute drag, an effect which may also occur for bainite. In Fe-Cr alloys, the solute drag effect seems to be weaker but may increase with the carbon content.

Keyword
Alloying; Bainitic transformations; Binary alloys; Carbon; Chromium; Cooling; Diffusion in solids; Growth (materials); Iron alloys; Nickel; Phase equilibria; Temperature; Acicular structures; Iron carbon alloys; Lath martensite; Lenticular martensite; Rapid continuous cooling; Solute drag effect; Widmanstatten; Bainite
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12506 (URN)
Note
QC 20100429Available from: 2010-04-29 Created: 2010-04-29 Last updated: 2010-04-29Bibliographically approved
2. Driving force for f.c.c.→b.c.c. martensites in Fe-X alloys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving force for f.c.c.→b.c.c. martensites in Fe-X alloys
1997 (English)In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 45, no 5, 2079-2091 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Information on Ms, the starting temperature for formation of martensite, is reviewed and one Ms line each for lath and plate martensite are drawn in a number of Fe-X phase diagrams. A reasonable interpretation of the data indicates the possibility that the distance between the two lines may vary linearly with temperature and be independent of the choice of alloying element. Using thermodynamic descriptions of the binary systems, the driving force for the start of the formation of the two kinds of martensite is calculated from the same interpretation of data. When plotted against temperature the results indicate that the driving force for martensite may not be much affected by solution hardening but may mainly be a function of temperature. For plate martensite it may have a fairly constant value of about 2100 J/mol. For lath martensite it may vary linearly, possibly from 500 J/mol at 800°C to 2100 J/mol at 250°C.

Keyword
Alloying elements; Binary alloys; Hardening; Iron alloys; Martensitic transformations; Phase diagrams; Thermal effects; Thermodynamic properties; Driving forces; Solution hardening; Martensite
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12507 (URN)10.1016/S1359-6454(96)00308-4 (DOI)
Note
QC 20100429Available from: 2010-04-29 Created: 2010-04-29 Last updated: 2010-04-29Bibliographically approved
3. Activation energy for isothermal martensite in ferrous alloys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Activation energy for isothermal martensite in ferrous alloys
1997 (English)In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 45, no 2, 651-662 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The experimental information on isothermal α martensite in ferrous alloys is reviewed. From the kinetics one can clearly distinguish between three groups of alloys yielding isothermal martensite. The first group contains high alloy steels with a low Ms temperature. They form isothermal martensite with a temperature dependence corresponding to a very low activation energy, possibly 7 kJ/mol. The second group contains steels with an appreciable amount of carbon. Its rate of formation of isothermal martensite can be explained by assuming that it is triggered by submicroscopic plates of bainite formed with a rate controlled by carbon diffusion. The third group contains Fe---Ni alloys with up to about 25% Ni. There the temperature dependence corresponds to an activation energy of about 80 kJ/mol. It is proposed that their transformation is related to the transformation causing plateau II in experiments with very rapid cooling, a transformation which has previously been proposed to be related to the formation of bainite.

Keyword
Activation energy; Bainite; Carbon; Diffusion; Martensite; Martensitic transformations; Reaction kinetics; Steel; Thermal effects; Ferrous alloy; High alloy steel; Isothermal martensite; Iron alloys
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12508 (URN)10.1016/S1359-6454(96)00186-3 (DOI)A1997WF44300022 ()
Note
QC 20100429Available from: 2010-04-29 Created: 2010-04-29 Last updated: 2011-02-07Bibliographically approved
4. Critical temperature for growth of martensite
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical temperature for growth of martensite
1995 (English)In: Acta Metallurgica Et Materialia, ISSN 0956-7151, Vol. 43, no 3, 945-954 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ms may be defined as the temperature below which the formation of martensite starts upon cooling. It may also be useful to define Mg, the temperature below which martensite can grow if it is already nucleated. In order to analyze the mechanism of martensite formation, it is essential to know the difference Mg - Ms. We have tried to evaluate Mg - Ms for an Fe-C alloy with a decarburized surface zone in order to induce nucleation. The samples were studied by means of electron microprobe, serial sectioning and optical microscopy. The results indicate that Mg is surprisingly close to Ms. The possibility that Mg is controlled by growth rather than nucleation is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Pergamon, 1995
Keyword
Cooling; Grain boundaries; Growth (materials); Iron alloys; Nucleation; Optical microscopy; Phase transitions; Temperature; Critical temperature; Decarburized surface zone; Electron microprobe; Serial sectioning; Martensite
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12504 (URN)10.1016/0956-7151(94)00311-5 (DOI)
Note
QC 20100429Available from: 2010-04-29 Created: 2010-04-29 Last updated: 2010-04-29Bibliographically approved
5. Thermodynamic evaluation of the Fe-Mn-Si system and the γ/ε martensitic transformation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermodynamic evaluation of the Fe-Mn-Si system and the γ/ε martensitic transformation
1993 (English)In: Journal of phase equilibria (Print), ISSN 1054-9714, E-ISSN 1544-1032, Vol. 14, no 3, 354-363 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The thermodynamic properties of the Fe-Mn-Si system are analyzed by means of thermodynamic models for the individual phases. Special attention is paid to the γ → ε martensitic transition. A complete set of parameters, from which arbitrary sections of the phase diagram as well as the Ms and As temperatures may be calculated, is given.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-12503 (URN)10.1007/BF02668233 (DOI)
Note
QC 20100429Available from: 2010-04-29 Created: 2010-04-29 Last updated: 2010-04-29Bibliographically approved

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