Tolled multi-class traffic equilibria and toll sensitivities
2015 (English)In: EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics, ISSN 2192-4376, E-ISSN 2192-4384, Vol. 4, no 2, 197-222 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
We review properties of tolled equilibria in road networks, with users differing in their time values, and study corresponding sensitivities of equilibrium link flows w.r.t. tolls. Possible applications include modeling of individual travellers that have different trip purposes (e.g. work, business, leisure, etc.) and therefore perceive the relation between travel time and monetary cost in dissimilar ways. The typical objective is to reduce the total value of travel time (TVT) over all users. For first best congestion pricing, where all links in the network can be tolled, the solution can be internalized through marginal social cost (MSC) pricing. The MSC equilibrium typically has to be implemented through fixed tolls. The MSC as well as the fixed-toll equilibrium problems can be stated as optimization problems, which in general are convex in the fixed-toll case and non-convex in the MSC case. Thus, there may be several MSC equilibria. Second-best congestion pricing, where one only tolls a subset of the links, is much more complex, and equilibrium flows, times and TVT are not in general differentiable w.r.t. tolls in sub-routes used by several classes. For generic tolls, where the sets of shortest paths are stable, we show how to compute Jacobians (w.r.t positive tolls) of link flows and times as well as of the TVT. This can be used in descent schemes to find tolls that minimize the TVT at least locally. We further show that a condition of independent equilibrium cycles, together with a natural extension of the single class regularity condition of strict complementarity, leads to genericity, and hence existence of said Jacobians.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 4, no 2, 197-222 p.
Congestion pricing, Marginal social cost, Multi-class traffic assignment, Second-Best road pricing, Sensitivity
Transport Systems and Logistics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-170235DOI: 10.1007/s13676-014-0058-0ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84930199472OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-170235DiVA: diva2:827594
QC 201506292015-06-292015-06-292015-06-29Bibliographically approved