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Integration of GMR-based spin torque oscillators and CMOS circuitry
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1686-7923
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1271-1814
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
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2015 (English)In: Solid-State Electronics, ISSN 0038-1101, E-ISSN 1879-2405, Vol. 111, 91-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper demonstrates the integration of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) spin torque oscillators (STO) with dedicated high frequency CMOS circuits. The wire-bonding-based integration approach is employed in this work, since it allows easy implementation, measurement and replacement. A GMR STO is wire-bonded to the dedicated CMOS integrated circuit (IC) mounted on a PCB, forming a (GMR STO + CMOS IC) pair. The GMR STO has a lateral size of 70 nm and more than an octave of tunability in the microwave frequency range. The proposed CMOS IC provides the necessary bias-tee for the GMR STO, as well as electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and wideband amplification targeting high frequency GMR STO-based applications. It is implemented in a 65 nm CMOS process, offers a measured gain of 12 dB, while consuming only 14.3 mW and taking a total silicon area of 0.329 mm2. The measurement results show that the (GMR STO + CMOS IC) pair has a wide tunability range from 8 GHz to 16.5 GHz and improves the output power of the GMR STO by about 10 dB. This GMR STO-CMOS integration eliminates wave reflections during the signal transmission and therefore exhibits good potential for developing high frequency GMR STO-based applications, which combine the features of CMOS and STO technologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 111, 91-99 p.
Keyword [en]
CMOS, Giant magnetoresistance, Integration, On-chip bias-tee, Spin torque oscillator, Wire bonding
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-170209DOI: 10.1016/j.sse.2015.05.037ISI: 000358294500016Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84930627106OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-170209DiVA: diva2:827652
Note

QC 20150629

Available from: 2015-06-29 Created: 2015-06-29 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Spin Torque Oscillator Modeling, CMOS Design and STO-CMOS Integration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spin Torque Oscillator Modeling, CMOS Design and STO-CMOS Integration
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Spin torque oscillators (STOs) are microwave oscillators with an attractive blend of features, including a more-than-octave tunability, GHz operating frequencies, nanoscale size, nanosecond switching speed and full compatibility with CMOS technology. Over the past decade, STOs' physical phenomena have been explored to a greater extent, their performance has been further improved, and STOs have already shown great potential for a wide range of applications, from microwave sources and detectors to neuromorphic computing. This thesis is devoted to promoting the STO technology towards its applications, by means of implementing the STO's electrical model, dedicated CMOS integrated circuits (ICs), and STO-CMOS IC integration.

An electrical model, which can capture magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) STO's characteristics, while enabling system- and circuit-level designs and performance evaluations, is of great importance for the development of MTJ STO-based applications. A comprehensive and compact analytical model, which is based on macrospin approximations and can fulfill the aforementioned requirements, is proposed. This model is fully implemented in Verilog-A, and can be used for efficient simulations of various MTJ STOs. Moreover, an accurate phase noise generation approach, which ensures a reliable model, is proposed and successfully used in the Verilog-A model implementation. The model is experimentally validated by three different MTJ STOs under different bias conditions.

CMOS circuits, which can enhance the limited output power of MTJ STOs to levels that are required in different applications, are proposed, implemented and tested. A novel balun-low noise amplifier (LNA), which can offer sufficient gain, bandwidth and linearity for MTJ STO-based magnetic field sensing applications, is proposed. Additionally, a wideband amplifier, which can be connected to an MTJ STO to form a highly-tunable microwave oscillator in a phase-locked loop (PLL), is also proposed. The measurement results demonstrate that the proposed circuits can be used to develop MTJ STO-based magnetic field sensing and microwave source applications.

The investigation of possible STO-CMOS IC integration approaches demonstrates that the wire-bonding-based integration is the most suitable approach. Therefore, a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) STO is integrated with its dedicated CMOS IC, which provides the necessary functions, using the wire-bonding-based approach. The RF characterization of the integrated GMR STO-CMOS IC system under different magnetic fields and DC currents shows that such an integration can eliminate wave reflections. These findings open the possibility of using GMR STOs in magnetic field sensing and microwave source applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xxvi, 81 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT, 2015:19
Keyword
STO technology, microwave oscillator, analytical model, macrospin approximation, Verilog-A model, high frequency CMOS circuits, balun-LNA, STO-IC integration
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176890 (URN)978-91-7595-750-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-12-07, Sal C, Isafjordsgatan 22, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20151112

Available from: 2015-11-12 Created: 2015-11-11 Last updated: 2015-11-12Bibliographically approved

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Chen, TingsuMalm, B. GunnarÅkerman, JohanRusu, Ana

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