In the era of platforms hosting multiple applications with arbitrary performance requirements, providing a worst-case platform-wide voltage/frequency operating point is neither optimal nor desirable. As a solution to this problem, designs commonly employ dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS). DVFS promises significant energy and power reductions by providing each application with the operating point (and hence the performance) tailored to its needs. To further enhance the optimization potential, recent works interleave dynamic parallelism with conventional DVFS. The induced parallelism results in performance gains that allow an application to lower its operating point even further (thereby saving energy and power consumption). However, the existing works employ costly dedicated hardware (for synchronization) and rely solely on greedy algorithms to make parallelism decisions. To efficiently integrate parallelism with DVFS, compared to state-of-the-art, we exploit the reconfiguration (to reduce DVFS synchronization overheads) and enhance the intelligence of the greedy algorithm (to make optimal parallelism decisions). Specifically, our solution relies on dynamically reconfigurable isolation cells and an autonomous parallelism, voltage, and frequency selection algorithm. The dynamically reconfigurable isolation cells reduce the area overheads of DVFS circuitry by configuring the existing resources to provide synchronization. The autonomous parallelism, voltage, and frequency selection algorithm ensures high power efficiency by combining parallelism with DVFS. It selects that parallelism, voltage, and frequency trio which consumes minimum power to meet the deadlines on available resources. Synthesis and simulation results using various applications/algorithms (WLAN, MPEG4, FFT, FIR, matrix multiplication) show that our solution promises significant reduction in area and power consumption (23% and 51%) compared to state-of-the-art.
2015. Vol. 11, no 4, 40