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Biogas Production in Abu Dhabi: An Evaluation based on Energy and Economy (Comparison of two plant designs)
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
2015 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Abu Dhabi, which is the capital city of the United Arab Emirates, is known for its fast and advanced development in a short period of time. The city however generates a large amount of waste on a daily basis and a large amount of this is dumped or landfilled. Landfilling of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and circa 80 % of the OFMSW is landfilled in Abu Dhabi. However, Abu Dhabi has shown its commitment to reducing GHG emissions by aiming to generate 7% renewable energy by 2030, improving waste management, and developing a strategy for green economy. In this study the approach evaluated is the waste-to-biogas system which utilizes anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Modules based on the Aikan® and REnescience® plant designs were simulated using SuperPro Designer® where energy and economic values were obtained and used for the evaluations. Excel was used to make a cash-flow analysis for both modules. A SWOT analysis was conducted to compare the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats between both modules.

Energy Returned on Investment is an approach that calculates the efficiency of a fuel by dividing the energy acquired by the energy required in a process. Both modules give an energy returned on investment (EROI) ratio for biogas of slightly below 2:1, in regards to electricity which is considered relatively low when compared to other fuels. Three methods were used for calculating the profitability of the modules, internal rate of return, pay-back period and net present value (NPV). However the net present value (NPV) was found most reliable and showed an NPV of $500 000 and $3 000 000 for module one and two respectively and calculations show that module one has more risks while module two could result in a bigger risk monetarily. The results show that implementing such a system will have a minimal contribution to the city’s aim of 7 % renewable energy generation. However, it will contribute to the city’s target of reducing GHG emission, improve waste management, and lead to a green economy. 

Abstract [sv]

Abu Dhabi, huvudstaden för Förenade Arab Emiraten, är kända för deras snabba utveckling under en kort period. Staden generar mycket avfall dagligen och detta deponeras oftast. Den organiska delen av hushållsavfall som deponeras bidrar till utsläpp av växthusgaser och cirka 80 % av detta organiska avfall deponeras i Abu Dhabi. Staten i Abu Dhabi har visat engagemang för att minska utsläppen av växthusgaser genom att försöka generera 7 % förnybar energi, förbättra avfallshanteringen, och utveckla en strategi för "grön ekonomi". I denna studie undersöks biogassystemet som utnyttjar rötning av den organiska delen av hushållsavfall för sin produktion av biogas. Moduler baserade på två olika kraftanläggningar, Aikan® och REnescience®, simulerades med hjälp av programvaran SuperPro Designer®. Värden för energiåtgång och ekonomiska storheter erhölls och användes för beräkningar i arbetet.

Energikvot är ett begrepp som används för att beräkna hur effektiv ett bränsle är genom att dividera energin som ges med energin som behövs i en process. De två olika modulerna ger energikvot (EROI) värden för elektricitet som nästan fördubblas i båda fallen. Tre metoder användes för att beräkna lönsamheten av modulernas lönsamhet, ”internal rate of return, pay- back period ” och Nuvärdesmetoden ”NPV”. Nuvärdesmetoden ansågs vara mest pålitlig och en NPV av 500 000 $ respektive 3 000 000 $ ficks för modulerna. Dessa resultat visar att genomförandet av ett biogassystem kommer ge ett mycket litet bidrag för att uppnå Abu Dhabis mål på 7 % förnybar energi till och med år 2030. Däremot minskas utsläpp av växthusgaser, avfallshanteringen förbättras samt bidrar till en grönare ekonomi. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015.
Series
TRITA-IM_KAND 2015, 19
National Category
Energy Systems Environmental Management
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-171943OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-171943DiVA: diva2:844949
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Examiners
Available from: 2015-08-10 Created: 2015-08-10 Last updated: 2015-08-10Bibliographically approved

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