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Organiska kväveföreningars påverkan på vätebehandlingsanläggningens prestanda
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
2014 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Effect of Organic Nitrogen Compounds on Hydrotreater Performance (English)
Abstract [en]

Various distillates are treated with hydrogen gas during hydrotreatment in the presence of catalyst in order to reduce the sulfur and aromatic content of the product. Optimal hydrotreater performance is essential for producing Nynas specialty oils, in order to fulfill the planned production volume and to meet the product specification. Loss of catalyst activity is inevitable during the production. To adjust for the impact of catalyst deactivation, different process variables are manipulated. Different distillates affect the catalyst in different ways due to the variation in distillate composition. Distillates with higher organic nitrogen content and running at a lower temperature tend to deactivate the catalyst more due to the adsorption of nitrogen compounds on the active sites of the catalyst and their slow nature of desorption.

In this master thesis, different catalyst deactivation mechanisms with a focus on nitrogen deactivation have been studied. Since nitrogen is not normally measured at Nynas, nitrogen content of different distillates and products and how these values change during operation was not known. Different distillates, blend of distillates and different products were measured to estimate roughly the typical nitrogen value of the distillates and products. The temperature data inside the reactors were analyzed to calculate and plot WABT (weighted average bed temperature) during different product runs and to see whether there is a correlation between the nitrogen content of the feed and operation severity (increase in WABT). Historical process data from hydrotreater unit 2 (mostly from 2013-2014) were analyzed with a view to finding out signs of catalyst deactivation. Similar product runs were also analyzed and compared to see how the catalysts performed at different periods of time. A kinetic model, based on HDS kinetics, has been used for following up two product runs. To do so, sulfur content of the feed and product were measured. Aromatic content of the product was also measured to see whether the product was on specification.

.From the calculation and plotting of WABTs, it could be seen that there is an increase in WABT during the product runs operating at lower temperatures and with higher nitrogen content. From the comparison of two P3 product runs at two different time periods, it could be seen that ∆T development over one bed (amount of reaction over the bed) was much lower at one time. This can possibly be a sign of catalyst deactivation since it contributed to lesser amount of reaction over the bed.

From the calculations by using the kinetic model, it could be seen that the actual temperatures were higher than the predicted temperatures. The increase in WABTs could also be noticed. These observations can possibly be coupled with nitrogen deactivation of the catalysts.  However, more tests are required to verify whether the temperature differences were significant or not. Other parameters which are also important from product selling point of view such as viscosity, color, flash point, acid number etc. and have not been covered in this degree project need to be taken into consideration before making further conclusions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. , 74 p.
Keyword [en]
Catalyst deactivation, Nitrogen deactivation, Hydrotreaters performance, Effect of nitrogen compounds on hydrotreatment, Quasi-irreversible poisoning of hydroprocessing catalysts
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-172334OAI: diva2:846867
Available from: 2015-08-19 Created: 2015-08-18 Last updated: 2015-08-19Bibliographically approved

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