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MEMS-based electrochemical gas sensors and wafer-level methods
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems. (Göran Stemme)
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes novel microel ectromechanical system (MEMS) based electrochemical gas sensors and methods of fabrication.

This thesis presents the research in two parts. In the first part, a method to handle a thin silicon wafer using an electrochemically active adhesive is described. Handling of a thin silicon wafer is an important issue in 3D-IC manufacturing where through silicon vias (TSVs) is an enabling technology. Thin silicon wafers are flexible and fragile, therefore difficult to handle. In addressing the need for a reliable solution, a method based on an electrochemically active adhesive was developed. In this method, an electrochemically active adhesive was diluted and spin coated on a 100 mm diameter silicon wafer (carrier wafer) on which another silicon wafer (device wafer) was bonded. Device wafer was subjected to post processing fabrication technique such as wafer thinning. Successful debonding of the device wafer was achieved by applying a voltage between the two wafers. In another part of the research, a fabrication process for developing a functional nanoporous material using atomic layer deposition is presented. In order to realize a nanoporous electrode, a nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) substrate was used, which was functionalized with very thin layers (~ 10 nm) of platinum (Pt) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) using atomic layer deposition. Nanoporous material when used as an electrode delivers high sensitivity due to the inherent high surface area and is potentially applicable in fuel cells and in electrochemical sensing.

The second part of the thesis addresses the need for a high performance gas sensor that is applicable for asthma monitoring. Asthma is a disease related to the inflammation in the airways of the lungs and is characterized by the presence of nitric oxide gas in the exhaled breath. The gas concentration of above approximately 50 parts-per-billion indicates a likely presence of asthma. A MEMS based electrochemical gas sensor was successfully designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements needed for asthma detection. Furthermore, to enable a hand held asthma measuring instrument, a miniaturized sensor with integrated electrodes and liquid electrolyte was developed. The electrodes were assembled at a wafer-level to demonstrate the feasibility towards a high volume fabrication of the gas sensors. In addition, the designed amperometric gas sensor was successfully tested for hydrogen sulphide concentration, which is a bio marker for bad breath.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , xiv, 77 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2015:030
Keyword [en]
MEMS, gas sensors, electrochemical, nitric oxide, hydrogen sulphide, nafion, nano
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-172955ISBN: 978-91-7595-661-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-172955DiVA: diva2:851003
Public defence
2015-10-02, Q2, Osquldas väg 10,, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 267528VINNOVASwedish Research Council
Note

QC 20150907

Available from: 2015-09-07 Created: 2015-09-03 Last updated: 2015-09-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Temporary Wafer Bonding and Debonding for 3D Integration Using an Electrochemically Active Polymer Adhesive
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporary Wafer Bonding and Debonding for 3D Integration Using an Electrochemically Active Polymer Adhesive
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2014 (English)In: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, Vol. 3, no 5, P115-P121 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of thin silicon wafers is an enabling technology for 3D integration in the semiconductor industry. However, thin silicon wafers are fragile to handle and reliable solutions are required for thin wafer handling. This paper reports a novel method of bonding and debonding a thin wafer (< 50 mu m) using an electrochemically active polymer adhesive. In the presented method the carrier wafer is first spin coated with the adhesive and then bonded to the device wafer by applying force and temperature. Debonding of the wafer is realized at room temperature by applying a voltage between the carrier and the device wafer, which substantially reduces the bond strength. The bonding and debonding properties of the adhesive show that temporary wafer bonding using electrochemically active adhesives has the potential to be an attractive approach for temporary wafer bonding for thin wafer handling in 3D integration processes.

Keyword
Electrelease
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145289 (URN)10.1149/2.001405jss (DOI)000334161400006 ()2-s2.0-84904717006 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140515

Available from: 2014-05-15 Created: 2014-05-15 Last updated: 2015-09-07Bibliographically approved
2. Pt-Al2O3 dual layer atomic layer deposition coating in high aspect ratio nanopores
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pt-Al2O3 dual layer atomic layer deposition coating in high aspect ratio nanopores
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2013 (English)In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 24, no 1, 015602- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Functional nanoporous materials are promising for a number of applications ranging from selective biofiltration to fuel cell electrodes. This work reports the functionalization of nanoporous membranes using atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is used to conformally deposit platinum (Pt) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on Pt in nanopores to form a metal-insulator stack inside the nanopore. Deposition of these materials inside nanopores allows the addition of extra functionalities to nanoporous materials such as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Conformal deposition of Pt on such materials enables increased performances for electrochemical sensing applications or fuel cell electrodes. An additional conformal Al2O3 layer on such a Pt film forms a metal-insulator-electrolyte system, enabling field effect control of the nanofluidic properties of the membrane. This opens novel possibilities in electrically controlled biofiltration. In this work, the deposition of these two materials on AAO membranes is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Successful process parameters are proposed for a reliable and cost-effective conformal deposition on high aspect ratio three-dimensional nanostructures. A device consisting of a silicon chip supporting an AAO membrane of 6 mm diameter and 1.3 mu m thickness with 80 nm diameter pores is fabricated. The pore diameter is reduced to 40 nm by a conformal deposition of 11 nm Pt and 9 nm Al2O3 using ALD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2013
Keyword
nanopore, ALD, nanofluidic transistor, large surface area electrode, platinum, aluminum oxide, AAO, nanofluidics, microfluidics, lab-on-chip, loc, fuel cell
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-104073 (URN)10.1088/0957-4484/24/1/015602 (DOI)000312272500020 ()2-s2.0-84870523064 (Scopus ID)
Projects
NanoGate
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilEU, European Research Council, 267528VINNOVA
Note

QC 20130110

Available from: 2012-10-26 Created: 2012-10-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. An amperometric nitric oxide sensor with fast response and ppb-level concentration detection relevant to asthma monitoring
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An amperometric nitric oxide sensor with fast response and ppb-level concentration detection relevant to asthma monitoring
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2015 (English)In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 209, 639-644 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A MEMS-based amperometric nitric oxide (NO) gas sensor is reported in this paper. The sensor is designed to detect NO gas for the purpose of asthma monitoring. The unique property of this sensor lies in the combination of a microporous high-surface area electrode that is coated with Nafion (TM), together with a liquid electrolyte. The sensor is able to detect gas concentrations of the order of parts-per-billion (ppb) and has a measured NO sensitivity of 0.045 nA/ppb and an operating range between 25 and 65% relative humidity. The settling time of the sensor is measured to 8s. The selectivity to interfering gases such as ammonia (NH3) and carbon monoxide (CO) was high when placing an activated carbon fiber filter above the sensor. The ppb-level detection capability of this sensor combined with its relatively fast response, high selectivity to CO and NH3 makes the sensor potentially applicable in gas monitoring for asthma detection.

Keyword
Nitric oxide, Amperometric, Nafion (TM), MEMS, Gas sensor
National Category
Chemical Sciences Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-161090 (URN)10.1016/j.snb.2014.11.147 (DOI)000349082200084 ()2-s2.0-84919800404 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VINNOVAEU, European Research Council, 267528
Note

QC 20150325

Available from: 2015-03-25 Created: 2015-03-09 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
4. A wafer level liquid cavity integrated amperometric gas sensor with ppb leve nitric oxide gas sensitivity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A wafer level liquid cavity integrated amperometric gas sensor with ppb leve nitric oxide gas sensitivity
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

A miniaturized amperometric nitric oxide (NO) gas sensor based on wafer-level fabrication of electrodes and a liquid electrolyte chamber is reported in this paper. The sensor is able to detect NO gas concentrations of the order of parts per billion (ppb) levels and has a measured sensitivity of 0.04 nA ppb−1 with a response time of approximately 12 s. A sufficiently high selectivity of the sensor to interfering gases such as carbon monoxide (CO) and to ammonia (NH3) makes it potentially relevant for monitoring of asthma. In addition, the sensor was characterized for electrolyte evaporation which indicated a sensor operation lifetime allowing approximately 200 measurements.

Keyword
nitric oxide, amperometric, gas sensor, MEMS, silicon, Nafion
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-172968 (URN)
Note

QP 201509

Available from: 2015-09-03 Created: 2015-09-03 Last updated: 2015-09-07Bibliographically approved
5. An amperometric hydrogen sulphide sensor applicable for bad breath monitoring
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An amperometric hydrogen sulphide sensor applicable for bad breath monitoring
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-172967 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-09-03 Created: 2015-09-03 Last updated: 2015-09-07Bibliographically approved

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