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Numerical and Experimental Investigations of the Machinability of Ti6AI4V: Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Cooling/ Lubrication Strategies
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Titanium alloys are widely utilized in the aerospace, biomedical,marine, petro-chemical and other demanding industries due to theirdurability, high fatigue resistance and ability to sustain elevateoperating temperature. As titanium alloys are difficult to machine, dueto which machining of these alloys ends up with higher environmentalburden. The industry is now embracing the sustainable philosophy inorder to reduce their carbon footprint. This means that the bestsustainable practices have to be used in machining of titanium alloys aswell as in an effort to reduce the carbon footprint and greenhouse gas(GHG) emissions.In this thesis, a better understanding towards the feasibility of shiftingfrom conventional (dry and flood) cooling techniques to the vegetableoil based minimum quantity cooling lubrication (MQCL) wasestablished. Machining performance of MQCL cooling strategies wasencouraging as in most cases the tool life was found close to floodstrategy or sometimes even better. The study revealed that theinfluence of the MQCL (Internal) application method on overallmachining performance was more evident at higher cutting speeds. Inaddition to the experimental machinability investigations, FiniteElement Modeling (FEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD)Modeling was also employed to prediction of energy consumed inmachining and cutting temperature distribution on the cutting tool. Allnumerical results were found in close agreement to the experimentaldata. The contribution of the thesis should be of interest to those whowork in the areas of sustainable machining.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , xx, 136 p.
Series
TRITA-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 15:07
Keyword [en]
Titanium alloys, Energy consumption, Wear mechanisms, Finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamic analysis
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Production Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173594ISBN: 978-91-7595-702-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-173594DiVA: diva2:853771
Public defence
2015-10-01, Brinellsal M311, Brinellvägen 68, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20150915

Available from: 2015-09-15 Created: 2015-09-15 Last updated: 2015-09-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Influence of Tool Materials on Machinability of Titanium- and Nickel-Based Alloys: A Review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Tool Materials on Machinability of Titanium- and Nickel-Based Alloys: A Review
2014 (English)In: Materials and Manufacturing Processes, ISSN 1042-6914, E-ISSN 1532-2475, Vol. 29, no 3, 219-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Titanium and nickel alloys are the most commonly used in the demanding industries like aerospace, energy, petrochemical, and biomedical. These highly engineered alloys offer unique combination of heat resistance, corrosion resistance, toughness, high operating temperature, and strength-to-weight ratio. These alloys are termed as "Difficult to cut materials" because of their low machinability rating. They are difficult to machine because of properties like low thermal conductivity, high strength at elevated temperatures, and high chemical reactivity. Machining of titanium- and nickel-based alloys causes problems of surface integrity and selection of cutting tool materials that is always a challenge for manufacturers. In this work, machinability studies for titanium and nickel alloys are reviewed with reference to cutting tool materials, associated wear mechanisms, failure modes, and novel tooling techniques. It also discusses major surface integrity defects like carbide cracking, white layer formation, work hardening layer formation, residual stresses, and microstructural alterations. Major aim of this work is to evaluate the challenges involved in improving machinability of the titanium- and nickel-based alloys, and determine the future research direction for productivity improvements in machining these alloys.

Keyword
Nickel, Tools, Machinability, Titanium, Processing, Wear
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145092 (URN)10.1080/10426914.2014.880460 (DOI)000333997400001 ()2-s2.0-84896311946 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140509

Available from: 2014-05-09 Created: 2014-05-08 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. Tool wear patterns when turning of titanium alloy using sustainable lubrication strategies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tool wear patterns when turning of titanium alloy using sustainable lubrication strategies
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, ISSN 2234-7593, E-ISSN 2005-4602, Vol. 15, no 9, 1979-1985 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A key area of research in sustainable machining is the search for environmentally benign cooling strategies. Vegetable oils have often been proposed as sustainable alternative to the conventional synthetic emulsion coolants. Techniques like dry and cryogenic machining, MQL and MQCL have also been proposed. The current study investigates the effect of six different strategies on the flank tool wear during turning of titanium Ti-6Al-4v using uncoated carbide tool at two levels of speed and feed. The mechanisms of tool wear are discussed. The use of rapeseed vegetable oil in MQL and MQCL configuration turns out to be an overall sustainable alternative at low feed and speed. Thus confirming the promise predicted in the use of vegetable oil as a lubricant for machining. At high speed and feed, cryogenic machining is more suitable for sustainable machining of Titanium.

Keyword
Sustainable machining, Titanium alloys, Lubrication, Cooling strategies, Tool wear
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-153854 (URN)10.1007/s12541-014-0554-z (DOI)000341830500026 ()2-s2.0-84919918263 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20141010

Available from: 2014-10-10 Created: 2014-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Minimal Quantity Cooling Lubrication (MQCL) in Turning of Ti6Al4V: Influence on Surface roughness, Cutting force and Tool Wear
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minimal Quantity Cooling Lubrication (MQCL) in Turning of Ti6Al4V: Influence on Surface roughness, Cutting force and Tool Wear
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173597 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-09-15 Created: 2015-09-15 Last updated: 2015-09-15Bibliographically approved
4. Machinability of Ti6Al4V using minimum quantity cooling lubrication under various oil supply rates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Machinability of Ti6Al4V using minimum quantity cooling lubrication under various oil supply rates
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173596 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-09-15 Created: 2015-09-15 Last updated: 2015-09-15Bibliographically approved
5. Prediction of energy consumption and environmental implications for turning operation using finite element analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of energy consumption and environmental implications for turning operation using finite element analysis
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part B, journal of engineering manufacture, ISSN 0954-4054, E-ISSN 2041-2975, Vol. 229, no 11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article is concerned with the experimental and numerical investigation of energy consumption involved in the turning of Ti6Al4V titanium alloys. Energy consumption of a machining process is considered as an important machining performance indicator. This article aims to propose an approach for the prediction of energy consumption and related environmental implications using finite element modeling simulations. Machining experiments were conducted using uncoated carbide tools under dry cutting environment. DEFORM-3D software package was utilized to simulate finite element–based machining simulations. Experimental validation was mainly conducted by focusing on the cutting forces and power consumption measurements. Simulated results of the cutting force and power consumption were found in a good agreement with the experimental findings. The amount of CO2 emission resulting from energy consumption during the machining phase is highly dependent on the geographical location. This study also incorporated the energy mix of United Arab Emirates for the environmental calculations. Finally, in the light of proposed methodology, possible future directions and recommendations have also been presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2015
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173593 (URN)10.1177/0954405414541105 (DOI)000366158800005 ()2-s2.0-84960934913 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150107

Available from: 2015-09-15 Created: 2015-09-15 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
6. A novel numerical modeling approach to determine the temperature distribution in the cutting tool using conjugate heat transfer (CHT) analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel numerical modeling approach to determine the temperature distribution in the cutting tool using conjugate heat transfer (CHT) analysis
Show others...
2015 (English)In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 80, no 5, 1039-1047 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study deals with the conjugate heat transfer problem of a single point cutting tool under turning operation dissipating heat in the tool material and streams of the surrounding air. In order to estimate the cutting temperature during the turning operation, the DEFORM-3D finite element package was utilized. A machining simulation material model for Ti6Al4V was utilized using a modified Johnson–Cook equation. The maximum cutting temperature value was obtained from the finite element model. The temperature was then used as a constant heat source on the tool tip, and the conjugate heat transfer (CHT) approach was used to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The CFD model utilized a 3D heat and fluid flow analysis using ANSYS ® CFX. A cutting insert with a constant heat source was exposed to the stream velocities of the dry air. The numerical equations governing the flow and thermal fields in the fluid domain and energy equation in the solid domain were solved in parallel by maintaining the continuity of temperature and heat flux at the solid–fluid interface. The presented conjugate heat transfer (CHT) approach provided a very useful understanding of the temperature profile development at the cutting tool that is still a complex challenge for the existing experimental and numerical techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Production Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173586 (URN)10.1007/s00170-015-7086-2 (DOI)000360700900026 ()2-s2.0-84949999119 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150915

Available from: 2015-09-14 Created: 2015-09-14 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved

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