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Wettability of TiN by Liquid Iron and Steel
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4107-8405
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3060-9987
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
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2015 (English)In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 55, no 8, 1642-1651 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The wettability of liquid iron and steel in contact with TiN substrates was studied. Initially, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was used to prepare the samples using different operational conditions. It was found that a relative density of 96% and surface roughness values smaller than 250 nm could be obtained by using the following settings: a 1 873 K temperature, a 89.2 MPa pressure and a 5 min sintering time. Thereafter, the wettability of the liquid iron and steel in contact with the TiN substrates was measured based on video recordings, at the moment when the metals started to melt. The results show that the contact angle value for a TiN/pure Fe system (130 to 87.9 degrees for 900 s) is larger than the value for a TiN/steel system (110 to 50 degrees for 981 s). Therefore, it is concluded that TiN has good resistance to the corrosion of the liquid iron and steel. In the liquid iron case, its wetting behaviour occurs mainly due to the oxygen increase in liquid iron after a full melting. However, in the liquid steel case the contact angle decreases sharply due to both the effects of an oxygen increase in liquid steel and a precipitation of Ti(N,C,O) at the interface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 55, no 8, 1642-1651 p.
Keyword [en]
contact angle, TiN, iron, steel, solubility
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173453DOI: 10.2355/isijinternational.ISIJINT-2014-819ISI: 000359891900013Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84941087853OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-173453DiVA: diva2:855037
Note

QC 20150918

Available from: 2015-09-18 Created: 2015-09-11 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Wettability and Agglomeration Characteristics of Non-Metallic Inclusions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wettability and Agglomeration Characteristics of Non-Metallic Inclusions
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, both the wettability and the agglomeration characteristics of non-metallic inclusions in liquid iron/steel were studied by using both experimental results and thermodynamic considerations. The mechanisms of the wettability of different types of inclusions were discussed. Also, the agglomeration behaviors of the inclusions were analyzed.

Firstly, the wettability of different types of inclusions (including Al2O3, MgO, Ti2O3, TiO2 and TiN) in contact with the liquid iron/steel was studied. For the TiNcase, there is no reaction formation at the interface between TiN and pureiron/steel. In the caseo f pure Fe, the oxygen increase is the main factor for a contact angle decrease. As for the steel case, a sharp decrease of the contact angle is due to the effects of both an increased oxygen content in the liquid steel and a formation of a Ti(N,C,O) phase at the interface. For the Al2O3 and MgO cases, the formation of a FeAl2O4 and a MgO-FeO reaction layer at the interface, respectively, lead to a contact angle decrease. In the case of the Ti2O3/pure Fe case, the reaction at the interface cannot be identified. For the Ti2O3/steel case, the formation of an Al2TiO5 reaction layer is the main reason for a steep decrease of the contact angle. In the TiO2 case, the melting region appears at the temperature below the melting point of pure iron. This is due to the strong formation of a solid solution TiOx-FeO. The main source of the oxygen for the solid solution formationis due to a TiO2 substrate decomposition and a low partial pressure of oxygen in the chamber.

Regarding to the non-metallic particle additions (TiO2 and TiN) into the molten steel, the steel composition should be controlled to have a small Al content (<0.005mass%) and a high Ti content (>0.035mass%), so as togeta high number of Ti-rich oxide inclusions with a small size. This conclusionis supported from the view point of the van der Waals force, liquid-capillary force and wettability.

Regarding the Ti/Al complex deoxidation in the melt, the “mainly occupied clustered inclusions” with spherical shape is due to a TiOx-FeO liquid inclusion precipitation after an addition of Ti as a pre-deoxidizer. The much lower cluster number in the Ti/Al case than that in the Al case is mainly due to a coagulation of single TiOx-FeO liquid inclusions. Also, the cluster formation in a complex Ti/Al deoxidation is started after an Al addition rather than after a Ti addition.

Regarding the Al2O3 cluster formation in deoxidation, the cavity bridge forceis larger than the van der Waals force. However, the difference between them is smaller than 7 times. In the reoxidation process, the influence of the cavity bridge force due to the wettability decreased, and became similar to that of the liquid-capillary force.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. x, 66 p.
Keyword
wettability, non-metallic inclusion, agglomeration mechanism, attraction force, complex deoxidation, particle addition
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-183069 (URN)978-91-7595-867-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-03-30, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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Note

QC 20160301

Available from: 2016-03-01 Created: 2016-02-26 Last updated: 2017-02-28Bibliographically approved

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Xuan, ChangjiZhao, Zhe

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