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Nanoelectromechanical digital logic circuits using curved cantilever switches with amorphous-carbon-coated contacts
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4867-0391
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2015 (English)In: Solid-State Electronics, ISSN 0038-1101, E-ISSN 1879-2405, Vol. 113, 157-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches have the potential to complement or replace traditional CMOS transistors in the area of ultra-low-power digital electronics. This paper reports the demonstration of prototype circuits including the first 3-stage ring oscillator built using cell-level digital logic elements based on curved NEM switches. The ring oscillator core occupies an area of 30 mu m x 10 mu m using 6 NEM switches. Each NEM switch device has a footprint of 5 mu m x 3 mu m, an air gap of 60 mu m and is coated with amorphous carbon (a-C) for reliable operation. The ring oscillator operates at a frequency of 6.7 MHz, and confirms the simulated inverter propagation delay of 25 ns. The successful fabrication and measurement of this demonstrator are key milestones on the way towards an optimized, scaled technology with sub-nanosecond switching times, lower operating voltages and VLSI implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 113, 157-166 p.
Keyword [en]
NEMS, Ring oscillator, VLSI, Digital logic design, Curved cantilever, Amorphous carbon
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173125DOI: 10.1016/j.sse.2015.05.029ISI: 000359170600026Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84937250804OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-173125DiVA: diva2:855115
Conference
44th European Solid-State Device Research Conference (ESSDERC), SEP 22-26, 2014, Venice, ITALY
Note

QC 20150918

Available from: 2015-09-18 Created: 2015-09-07 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Heterogeneous 3D Integration and Packaging Technologies for Nano-Electromechanical Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterogeneous 3D Integration and Packaging Technologies for Nano-Electromechanical Systems
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Three-dimensional (3D) integration of micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) with integrated circuits (ICs) is an emerging technology that offers great advantages over conventional state-of-the-art microelectronics. MEMS and NEMS are most commonly employed as sensor and actuator components that enable a vast array of functionalities typically not attainable by conventional ICs. 3D integration of NEMS and ICs also contributes to more compact device footprints, improves device performance, and lowers the power consumption. Therefore, 3D integration of NEMS and ICs has been proposed as a promising solution to the end of Moore’s law, i.e. the slowing advancement of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology.In this Ph.D. thesis, I propose a comprehensive fabrication methodology for heterogeneous 3D integration of NEM devices directly on top of CMOS circuits. In heterogeneous integration, the NEMS and CMOS components are fully or partially fabricated on separate substrates and subsequently merged into one. This enables process flexibility for the NEMS components while maintaining full compatibility with standard CMOS fabrication. The first part of this thesis presents an adhesive wafer bonding method using ultra-thin intermediate bonding layers which is utilized for merging the NEMS components with the CMOS substrate. In the second part, a novel NEM switch concept is introduced and the performance of CMOS-integrated NEM switch circuits for logic and computation applications is discussed. The third part examines two different packaging approaches for integrated MEMS and NEMS devices with either hermetic vacuum cavities or low-cost glass lids for optical applications. Finally, a novel fabrication approach for through silicon vias (TSVs) by magnetic assembly is presented, which is used to establish an electrical connection from the packaged devices to the outside world.

Abstract [sv]

Tredimensionell (3D) integration av mikro- och nano-elektromekaniska system (MEMS/NEMS) med integrerade kretsar (ICs) är en ny teknik som erbjuder stora fördelar jämfört med konventionell mikroelektronik. MEMS och NEMS används oftast som sensorer och aktuatorer då de möjliggör många funktioner som inte kan uppnås med vanliga ICs.3D-integration av NEMS och ICs bidrar även till mindre dimensioner, ökade prestanda och mindre energiförbrukning av elektriska komponenter. Den nuvarande tekniken för complementary metal-oxide-semicondictor (CMOS) närmar sig de fundamentala gränserna vilket drastiskt begränsar utvecklingsmöjligheten för mikroelektronik och medför slutet på Moores lag. Därför har 3D-integration identifierats som en lovande teknik för att kunna driva vidare utvecklingen för framtidens elektriska komponenter.I denna avhandling framläggs en omfattande fabrikationsmetodik för heterogen 3D-integration av NEMS ovanpå CMOS-kretsar. Heterogen integration betyder att både NEMS- och CMOS-komponenter byggs på separata substrat för att sedan förenas på ett enda substrat. Denna teknik tillåter full processfrihet för tillverkning av NEMS-komponenter och garanterar kompatibilitet med standardiserade CMOS-fabrikationsprocesser.I den första delen av avhandlingen beskrivs en metod för att sammanfoga två halvledarskivor med en extremt tunn adhesiv polymer. Denna metod demonstreras för 3D-integration av NEMS- och CMOS-komponenter. Den andra delen introducerar ett nytt koncept för NEM-switchar och dess användning i NEM-switch-baserade mikrodatorchip. Den tredje delen presenterar två olika inkapslingsmetoder för MEMS och NEMS. Den ena metoden fokuserar på hermetisk vakuuminkapsling medan den andra metoden beskriver en lågkostnadsstrategi för inkapsling av optiska komponenter. Slutligen i den fjärde delen presenteras en ny fabrikationsteknik för så kallade ”through silicon vias” (TSVs) baserad på magnetisk självmontering av nickeltråd på mikrometerskala.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 55 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2017:048
Keyword
Nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS), Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), heterogeneous 3D integration, CMOS integration, Morethan- Moore (MtM), adhesive wafer bonding, NEM switch, FPGA, contact reliability, hermetic vacuum packaging, Cu low-temperature welding, through silicon vias (TSVs), magnetic self-assembly
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207185 (URN)978-91-7729-431-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-15, Q2, Osquldas väg 10, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

20170519

Available from: 2017-05-19 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2017-05-19Bibliographically approved

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Bleiker, Simon J.Niklaus, Frank

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