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Running-in of gears from a surfacetransformation and efficiency point of view
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2347-8379
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Requirements today for machines have moved beyond functionality intoefficiency and reliability, gears are no exception. The presented work focuseson the analysis of the measurement, evolution and effect of running-in on geardrives from a surface roughness and efficiency point of view. With no consen-sus on a definition or observation of running-in of gear drives, measurementsof both efficiency and surface transformation during the predefined running-inis explored. A verified methodology on how to separate form, waviness androughness is presented. Two finishing methods, namely generation groundand superfinished, are analyzed in terms of efficiency and surface characteris-tics as manufactured, after running-in and after efficiency testing in order todetermine the effects of load level during running-in.Results show that separation of form can be achieved with a carefullychosen polynomial, while waviness is more subject to how the user definesa cut-off wavelength for the surface roughness. Ground gears show distinctsmoothening in terms of surface roughness at high running-in load, and nogeneral trend for low load. This behavior is also reflected in the efficiencysince higher loads gave overall lower efficiency after running-in when com-pared to lower loads. Superfinished gears in contrast show no running-in ef-fects in terms of efficiency. Additionally, ground gears exhibit general changein friction and surface roughness during the first cycles of running-in whenanalyzing high load. Overall gains in efficiency can be obtained from running-in; however, at most speeds improvements from polishing a surface, in thiscase superfinishing, proved to lead to higher efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , xi, 53 p.
Series
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2015:06
Keyword [en]
running-in, surface transformation, efficiency, gears, ground, su- perfinished
National Category
Tribology
Research subject
Energy Technology; Machine Design
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173828ISBN: 978-91-7595-688-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-173828DiVA: diva2:855121
Presentation
2015-10-16, Sal Gladan, Brinellvägen 85, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35557-1
Note

QC 20150922

Available from: 2015-09-22 Created: 2015-09-18 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. In situ surface characterization of running-in of involute gears
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In situ surface characterization of running-in of involute gears
2015 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 340-341, 41-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gear life and operation are largely determined by the properties of the contacting surfaces, which inevitably change over the gear life. The initial topography transformation, a characteristic effect of running-in, is very important. This paper focuses on how the running-in of the surface topography can be characterized and what methodology can be used for this purpose. To characterize running-in, gears were run in an FZG back-to-back test rig and the changes in surface topography were measured in situ using a Form Talysurf Intra. This enables the same gear tooth surface to be measured with enough precision to follow its development through the different stages of running-in. Gear tooth surfaces as manufactured were measured on three occasions: in initial manufactured condition, after a standard running-in procedure, and after an efficiency test. Running-in was characterized both qualitatively by plotting roughness profiles and quantitatively by analyzing a selected set of roughness parameters. This paper demonstrates that: the asperity peaks were worn off in the initial running-in stage; roughness, waviness, and form can be separated using a carefully chosen polynomial fit and the Gaussian filter; surface topography can be examined initially, after running-in, and after operation in situ; and complete wear of the initial surface can be observed in specific circumstances.

Keyword
Gear manufacture, Gear teeth, Gears, Topography, Back-to-back tests, Contacting surfaces, Different stages, Form removal, Gear tooth surface, In-situ surface characterizations, Roughness parameters, Running-in, Surface topography
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173897 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2015.03.008 (DOI)000362926400007 ()2-s2.0-84925742642 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170928

Available from: 2015-09-22 Created: 2015-09-22 Last updated: 2017-09-28Bibliographically approved
2. Analysis of efficiency of spur ground gears and the influence of running-in
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of efficiency of spur ground gears and the influence of running-in
2016 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 93, 172-181 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-performing gear transmissions are needed to reduce CO2 emissions. In this paper an FZG gear test rig was used to investigate how two running-in loads affects the gear mesh efficiency for two different temperatures. The gear surface roughness was investigated in parallel with testing. Higher efficiency was observed for tests using a high running-in load, and for low lubricant temperatures. The running-in load had a larger effect on the mesh efficiency than temperature. The high running-in load also yielded higher gear mesh efficiency and had a larger impact on surface parameters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Running-in, Gears, Efficiency, Surface roughness
National Category
Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173899 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2015.08.045 (DOI)000366787700020 ()2-s2.0-84942909258 (Scopus ID)978-1-78242-195-5 (ISBN)978-1-78242-194-8 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35078-1, 35557-1
Note

QC 20160121

Available from: 2015-09-22 Created: 2015-09-22 Last updated: 2017-09-28Bibliographically approved
3. The effect of running-in on the efficiency of superfinished gears
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of running-in on the efficiency of superfinished gears
2016 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 93, 71-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reduced gear contact losses are necessary to keep operating temperatures, as well as fuel consumption low. In this work, an FZG gear test rig was used to investigate the effect of running-in on superfinished gears with respect to efficiency. This was compared to ground gears where a higher contact pressure yielded higher efficiency. No difference was found between the two running-in procedures when analysing superfinished gears. The effect of running-in on gears decreased when the initial surface roughness was reduced, which initially had an Ra, Rz and Rpk value of 0.08, 0.75 and 0.08 μm respectively. Superfinished gears showed an overall higher efficiency; however, a distinctly lower efficiency was present below 2 m/s when compared to ground gears.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Gear efficiency, Running-in, Superfinished, Ground
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173902 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2015.08.010 (DOI)000366787700010 ()2-s2.0-84942937858 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20160121

Available from: 2015-09-22 Created: 2015-09-22 Last updated: 2017-09-28Bibliographically approved
4. In situ running-inanalysis of ground gear
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In situ running-inanalysis of ground gear
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173903 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-09-22 Created: 2015-09-22 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved

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