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Terrain Mapping for Autonomous Vehicles
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
2015 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Terrängkartläggning för autonoma fordon (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous vehicles have become the forefront of the automotive industry nowadays, looking to have safer and more efficient transportation systems. One of the main issues for every autonomous vehicle consists in being aware of its position and the presence of obstacles along its path. The current project addresses the pose and terrain mapping problem integrating a visual odometry method and a mapping technique. An RGB-D camera, the Kinect v2 from Microsoft, was chosen as sensor for capturing information from the environment. It was connected to an Intel mini-PC for real-time processing. Both pieces of hardware were mounted on-board of a four-wheeled research concept vehicle (RCV) to test the feasibility of the current solution at outdoor locations. The Robot Operating System (ROS) was used as development environment with C++ as programming language. The visual odometry strategy consisted in a frame registration algorithm called Adaptive Iterative Closest Keypoint (AICK) based on Iterative Closest Point (ICP) using Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF (ORB) as image keypoint extractor. A grid-based local costmap rolling window type was implemented to have a two-dimensional representation of the obstacles close to the vehicle within a predefined area, in order to allow further path planning applications.

Experiments were performed both offline and in real-time to test the system at indoors and outdoors scenarios. The results confirmed the viability of using the designed framework to keep tracking the pose of the camera and detect objects in indoor environments. However, outdoor environments evidenced the limitations of the features of the RGB-D sensor, making the current system configuration unfeasible for outdoor purposes.

Abstract [sv]

Autonoma fordon har blivit spetsen för bilindustrin i dag i sökandet efter säkrare och effektivare transportsystem. En av de viktigaste sakerna för varje autonomt fordon består i att vara medveten om sin position och närvaron av hinder längs vägen. Det aktuella projektet behandlar position och riktning samt terrängkartläggningsproblemet genom att integrera en visuell distansmätnings och kartläggningsmetod. RGB-D kameran Kinect v2 från Microsoft valdes som sensor för att samla in information från omgivningen. Den var ansluten till en Intel mini PC för realtidsbehandling. Båda komponenterna monterades på ett fyrhjuligt forskningskonceptfordon (RCV) för att testa genomförbarheten av den nuvarande lösningen i utomhusmiljöer. Robotoperativsystemet (ROS) användes som utvecklingsmiljö med C++ som programmeringsspråk. Den visuella distansmätningsstrategin bestod i en bildregistrerings-algoritm som kallas Adaptive Iterative Closest Keypoint (AICK) baserat på Iterative Closest Point (ICP) med hjälp av Oriented FAST och Rotated BRIEF (ORB) som nyckelpunktsutvinning från bilder. En rutnätsbaserad lokalkostnadskarta av rullande-fönster-typ implementerades för att få en tvådimensionell representation av de hinder som befinner sig nära fordonet inom ett fördefinierat område, i syfte att möjliggöra ytterligare applikationer för körvägen.

Experiment utfördes både offline och i realtid för att testa systemet i inomhus- och utomhusscenarier. Resultaten bekräftade möjligheten att använda den utvecklade metoden för att spåra position och riktning av kameran samt upptäcka föremål i inomhusmiljöer. Men utomhus visades begränsningar i RGB-D-sensorn som gör att den aktuella systemkonfigurationen är värdelös för utomhusbruk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 98 p.
Keyword [en]
mapping, costmap, ROS, ORB, registration, obstacles, detection, visual, odometry, adaptive, iterative, keypoint, RCV, vehicle, Kinect, RGB-D, AICK, ICP, gridmap, autonomous, vehicle, pose, estimation, estimate, point-cloud
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174132OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-174132DiVA: diva2:858059
Educational program
Master of Science - Systems, Control and Robotics
Presentation
2015-09-04, 304, Teknikringen 14, Stockholm, 20:21 (English)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2015-10-05 Created: 2015-09-30 Last updated: 2015-10-05Bibliographically approved

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Master Thesis Report - Terrain Mapping for Autonomous Vehicles - Carlos J Pedreira C(84946 kB)107 downloads
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