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A 180 nm-CMOS Asymmetric UWB-RFID Tag with Real-time Remote-monitored ECG-sensing
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0528-9371
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices, 2015, 210-215 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes an asymmetric ultra-wideband - radio frequency identification (UWB-RFID) tag with electrocardiogram (ECG)-sensing capability for patients remote-monitoring in hospital environment. A UWB-RFID communication protocol is suggested for real-time transmission of undistorted ECG by interleaving ADC sampling and burst-mode UWB transmission. The proposed system shows a maximum accessing capability of 400 tags/second at 1.5 KHz ECG sampling rate with 10 Mbps UWB pulse rate. The tag consists of UHF-RFID receiver, UWB transmitter, ECG analog front-end, multi-input ADC and baseband circuitry integrated on two silicon dies. It was implemented by 6 mm2 -sized 180 nm CMOS technology. Electrodes for ECG-sensing are manufactured by inkjet-printing on polyimide substrate. Experiment results show that the tag transmits UWB pulses at 1 Mbps rate with 18 µW power. The printed electrodes conduct ECG waveform comparable to commercial electrodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. 210-215 p.
Keyword [en]
Real-Time Remote-Monitoring, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Asymmetric Ultra-Wideband - Radio Frequency Identification (UWB-RFID), Inkjet-Printed Electrodes
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175318DOI: 10.5220/0005286302100215Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84936762426ISBN: 978-989-758-071-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-175318DiVA: diva2:860213
Conference
The International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices, 2015, Lisbon, Portugal
Note

QC 20151012

Available from: 2015-10-12 Created: 2015-10-12 Last updated: 2016-09-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Interactive RFID for Industrial and Healthcare Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactive RFID for Industrial and Healthcare Applications
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis introduces the circuit and system design of interactive Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. IoT has the vision of connectivity for anything, at anytime and anywhere. One of the most important characteristics of IoT is the automatic and massive interaction of real physical world (things and human) with the virtual Internet world.RFID tags integrated with sensors have been considered as one suitable technology for realizing the interaction. However, while it is important to have RFID tags with sensors as the input interaction, it is also important to have RFID tags with displays as the output interaction.Display interfaces vary based on the information and application scenarios. On one side, remote and centralized display interface is more suitable for scenarios such as monitoring and localization. On the other side, tag level display interface is more suitable for scenarios such as object identification and online to offline propagation.

For tag level display, though a substantial number of researches have focused on introducing sensing functionalities to low power Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) RFID tags, few works address UHF RFID tags with display interfaces. Power consumption and integration with display of rigid substrate are two main challenges.With the recent emerging of Electronic Paper Display (EPD) technologies, it becomes possible to overcome the two challenges. EPD resembles ordinary ink on paper by characteristics of substrate flexibility, pattern printability and material bi-stability. Average power consumption of display is significantly reduced due to bi-stability, the ability to hold color for certain periods without power supplies. Among different EPD types, Electrochromic (EC) display shows advantage of low driving voltage compatible to chip supply voltage.Therefore this thesis designs a low power UHF RFID tag integrated in 180 nm CMOS process with inkjet-printed EC polyimide display. For applications where refresh rate is ultra-low (such as electronic label in retailing and warehouse), the wireless display tag is passive and supplied by the energy harvested from UHF RF wave. For applications where refresh rate is not ultra-low (such as object identification label in mass customized manufacturing), the wireless display tag is semi-passive and supplied by soft battery. It works at low average power consumption and with out-of-battery alert.

For remote and centralized display, the limitations of uplink (from tags to reader) capacity and massive-tag information feedback in IoT scenarios is the main challenge. Compared to conventional UHF RFID backscattering whose data rate is limited within hundreds of kb/s, Ultra-wideband (UWB) transmission have been verified with the performance of Mb/s data rate with several tens of pJ/pulse energy consumption.Therefore, a circuit prototype of UHF/UWB RFID tag replacing UHF backscattering with UWB transmitter is implemented. It also consists of Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) and Electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes for healthcare applications of real-time remote monitoring of multiple patients ECG signals. The ECG electrodes are fabricated on paper substrate by inkjet printing to improve patient comfort.

Key contribution of the thesis includes: 1) the power management scheme and circuit design of passive UHF/UWB RFID display tag. The tag sensitivity (the input RF power) is -10.5 dBm for EC display driving, comparable to the performance of conventional passive UHF RFID tags without display functions, and -18.5 dBm for UWB transmission, comparable to the state-of-the-art performance of passive UHF RFID tag. 2) communication flow and circuit design of UHF/UWB RFID tag with ECG sensing. The optimum system throughout is 400 tags/second with 1.5 KHz ECG sampling rate and 10 Mb/s UWB pulse rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xviii, 100 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 2015:15
Keyword
Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID), Electrochromic (EC) display, energy harvesting, Ultra-Wideband (UWB), remote monitoring, Internet-of-Things (IoT).
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174380 (URN)978-91-7595-717-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-11-04, Sal B, Elektrum, KTH-ICT, Kistagången 16, Kista, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151012

Available from: 2015-10-12 Created: 2015-10-06 Last updated: 2015-10-12Bibliographically approved
2. Radio and Sensor Interfaces for Energy-autonomous Wireless Sensing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radio and Sensor Interfaces for Energy-autonomous Wireless Sensing
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Along with rapid development of sensing and communication technology, Internet of Things (IoTs) has enabled a tremendous number of applications in health care, agriculture, and industry. As the fundamental element, the wireless sensing node, such as radio tags need to be operating under micro power level for energy autonomy. The evolution of electronics towards highly energy-efficient systems requires joint efforts in developing innovative architectures and circuit techniques. In this dissertation, we explore ultra-low power circuits and systems for micropower wireless sensing in the context of IoTs, with a special focus on radio interfaces and sensor interfaces. The system architecture of UHF/UWB asymmetric radio is introduced firstly. The active UWB radio is employed for the tag-to-reader communication while the conventional UHF radio is used to power up and inventory the tag. On the tag side, an ultra-low power, high pulse swing, and power scalable UWB transmitter is studied. On the reader side, an asymmetric UHF/UWB reader is designed. Secondly, to eliminate power-hungry frequency synthesis circuitry, an energy-efficient UWB transmitter with wireless clock harvesting is presented. The transmitter is powered by an UHF signal wirelessly and respond UWB pulses by locking-gating-amplifying the sub-harmonic of the UHF signal. 21% locking range can be achieved to prevent PVT variations with -15 dBm injected power. Finally, radio-sensing interface co-design is explored. Taking the advantage of RC readout circuit and UWB pulse generator, the sensing information is directly extracted and transmitted in the time domain, exploiting high time-domain resolution UWB pulses. It eliminates the need of ADC of the sensor interface, meanwhile, reduces the number of bits to be transmitted for energy saving. The measurement results show that the proposed system exhibits 7.7 bits ENOB with an average relative error of 0.42%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. xviii, 93 p.
Keyword
Ultra-wideband, asymmetric UHF/UWB radio, clock harvesting, time-domain sensing, energy efficiency, Internet-of-things
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184851 (URN)978-91-7595-855-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-05-02, Sal/hall B, Electrum, KTH-ICT, Kista, Kista, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20160412

Available from: 2016-04-12 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2016-04-18Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
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