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Numerical Simulations of the Kinetic Energy Transferin the Bath of a BOF Converter
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. Northeastern University Shenyang, China.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6212-7662
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
2016 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 47, no 1, 434-445 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper focuses on the fundamental aspects of the kinetic energy transfer from a top andbottom gas injection to the bath of the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) by applying a mathematicalmodel. The analyses revealed that the energy transfer is less efficient when top lance height islowered or the flowrate is increased in the top blowing operations. However, an inverse trendwas found that the kinetic energy transfer is increased when the bottom flowrate is increased forthe current bottom blowing operation conditions. The kinetic energy transfer index resultsindicated that the energy transfer for the bottom blowing is much more efficient than that of thetop blowing operations. To understand the effects of the upper buoyant phase on the energydissipation of the bulk liquid in the bath, different mass and physical properties of slag and foamwere considered in the bottom blowing simulations. The slag on top of the bath is found todissipate by 6.6, 9.4, and 11.2 pct for slag mass values of 5, 9, and 15 t compared to the casewithout slag atop the surface of the bath, respectively. The results showed that the kinetic energytransfer is not largely influenced by the viscosity of the upper slag or the foaming phases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016. Vol. 47, no 1, 434-445 p.
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175465DOI: 10.1007/s11663-015-0465-0ISI: 000368692300040Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84958160131OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-175465DiVA: diva2:861152
Note

QC 20160210

Available from: 2015-10-15 Created: 2015-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mathematical and Physical Simulations of BOF Converters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mathematical and Physical Simulations of BOF Converters
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to develop mathematical models to explore the mixing and its related phenomena in converter bath. Specifically, first, a mathematical model of a physical model converter, which was scaled down to 1/6th of a 30 t vessel, was developed in this study. A number of parameters were studied and their effects on the mixing time were recorded in a top blown converter. Second, a mathematical model for a combined top-bottom blown was built to investigate the optimization process. Then, a side tuyere was introduced in the combined top-bottom blown converter and its effects on the mixing and wall shear stress were studied. Moreover, based on the above results, the kinetic energy transfer phenomena in a real converter were investigated by applying the mathematical models.

A simplified model, in which the calculation region was reduced to save calculation compared to simulations of the whole region of the converter, was used in the mathematical simulation. In addition, this method was also used in the simulation of real converters. This approach makes it possible to simulate the Laval nozzle flow jet and the cavity separately when using different turbulence models.

In the top blown converter model, a comparison between the physical model and the mathematical model showed a good relative difference of 2.5% and 6.1% for the cavity depth and radius, respectively. In addition, the predicted mixing time showed a good relative difference of 2.8% in comparison to the experimental data. In an optimization of a combined top-bottom blown converter, a new bottom tuyere scheme with an asymmetrical configuration was found to be one of the best cases with respect to a decreased mixing time in the bath. An industrial investigation showed that the application effects of the new tuyere scheme yield a better stirring condition in the bath compared to the original case. Furthermore, the results indicated that the mixing time for a combined top-bottom-side blown converter was decreased profoundly compared to a conventional combined top-bottom blown converter. It was found that the side wall shear stress is increased by introducing side blowing, especially in the region near the side blowing plume.

For a 100 t converter in real, the fundamental aspects of kinetic energy transfer from a top and bottom gas to the bath were explored. The analyses revealed that the energy transfer is less efficient when the top lance height is lowered or the flowrate is increased in the top blowing operations. However, an inverse trend was found. Namely, that the kinetic energy transfer is increased when the bottom flowrate is increased in the current bottom blowing operations. In addition, the slag on top of the bath is found to dissipate 6.6%, 9.4% and 11.2% for the slag masses 5, 9 and 15 t compared to the case without slag on top of the surface of the bath, respectively. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xii, 47 p.
Keyword
BOF, physical model, mathematical model, mixing time, kinetic enregy
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175462 (URN)978-91-7595-714-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-11-06, M3, Brinellvägen 68, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151015

Available from: 2015-10-15 Created: 2015-10-15 Last updated: 2015-10-15Bibliographically approved

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