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An overview of biomass-fuelled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0635-7372
2015 (English)In: CLEAN, EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE ENERGY FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE, Elsevier, 2015, 2003-2008 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

PEMFC fuelled by biomass-derived hydrogen is an efficient and sustainable energy system for small-scale residential applications. Gasification and anaerobic digestion combined with steam reforming are seen as the most suitable conversion processes for hydrogen production. Since the biomass-derived hydrogen contains many kinds of contaminants including CO, CO2, H2S, NH3 and N-2, extensive work has been done on the mechanism and mitigation methods for their poisoning the PEMFC. Although the biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems have been tested in several experiments and checked through simulation work for different perspectives, further research and demonstration work are required to improve the system efficiency and reliability. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015. 2003-2008 p.
, Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102 ; 75
Keyword [en]
Biomass, PEMFC, Anearobic digestion, Steam reforming, Gasification
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering Energy Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174952DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.257ISI: 000361030003040ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84947093360OAI: diva2:865218
7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), MAR 28-31, 2015, Abu Dhabi, U ARAB EMIRATES

QC 20151027

Available from: 2015-10-27 Created: 2015-10-09 Last updated: 2015-11-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Biomass-fuelled PEM FuelCell systems for small andmedium-sized enterprises
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass-fuelled PEM FuelCell systems for small andmedium-sized enterprises
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Biomass-fuelled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer asolution for replacing fossil fuel for hydrogen production. Through using thebiomass-derived hydrogen as fuel, PEMFCs may become an efficient andsustainable energy system for small and medium-sized enterprises. The aim ofthis thesis is to evaluate the performance and potential applications of biomassfuelledPEMFC systems which are designed to convert biomass to electricity andheat. Biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems are simulated by Aspen plus based ondata collected from experiments and literature.The impact of the quality of the hydrogen-rich gas, anode stoichiometry, CH4content in the biogas and CH4 conversion rate on the performance of the PEMFCis investigated. Also, pinch technology is used to optimize the heat exchangernetwork to improve the power generation and thermal efficiency.For liquid and solid biomass, anaerobic digestion (AD) and gasification (GF),respectively, are relatively viable and developed conversion technologies. ForAD-PEMFC, a steam reformer is also needed to convert biogas to hydrogen-richgas. For 100 kWe generation, the GF-PEMFC system yields a good technicalperformance with 20 % electrical efficiency and 57 % thermal efficiency,whereas the AD-PEMFC system only has 9 % electrical efficiency and 13 %thermal efficiency. This low efficiency is due to the low efficiency of theanaerobic digester (AD) and the high internal heat consumption of the AD andthe steam reformer (SR). For the environmental aspects, the GF-PEMFC systemhas a high CO2 emissions offset factor and the AD-PEMFC system has anefficient land-use.The applications of the biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems are investigated on adairy farm and an olive oil plant. For the dairy farm, manure is used as feedstockto generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. A PEMFC qualified for 40 %electrical efficiency may generate 360 MWh electricity and 680 MWh heat peryear to make a dairy farm with 300 milked cows self-sufficient in a sustainableway. A PEMFC-CHP system designed for an olive oil plant generating annual 50000 m3 solid olive mill waste (SOMW) and 9 000 m3 olive mill waste water(OMW) is simulated based on experimental data from the Biogas2PEM-FCproject1. After the optimization of the heat exchanger network, the PEMFC-CHP 

system can generate 194 kW electricity which corresponds to 62 % of the totalelectricity demand of the olive oil plant.The economic performance of the PEMFC and biogas-fuelled PEMFC areassessed roughly including capital, operation & maintenance (O&M) costs of thebiogas plant and the PEMFC-CHP, the cost of heat and electricity, and the valueof the digestate as fertilizer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xviii, 64 p.
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2015:65
PEMFC, renewable hydrogen production, biomass, hydrogen-rich gas, biomass conversion, anaerobic digestion, steam reforming, CO removal, gasification, sustainable energy system
National Category
Energy Systems Chemical Process Engineering
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176633 (URN)978-91-7595-755-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-12-04, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)

QC 20151109

Available from: 2015-11-09 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2015-11-09Bibliographically approved

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