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Particle Flow during Compaction of Asphalt Model Materials
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5526-5896
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
2015 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 100, no 15, 273-284 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Compaction is one of the key phases of the pavement construction and has been subject of research for a long time. However, very little is known regarding what really happens during compaction and how the pavement structure and the aggregate skeleton of the asphaltic layer are formed. Studies on that matter are of special practical importance since they may contribute to reduce the possibility of over-compaction and aggregate crushing. In this study, a new test method (Flow Test) was developed to simulate the material flow during compaction. Initially, asphalt materials were substituted by model materials to lower the level of complexity for checking the feasibility of the new test method as well as modeling purposes. Geometrically simple materials with densest possible combinations were tested for both dry and coated mixtures. X-ray radiography images were used for evaluating the material flow during compaction for different model mixtures. Results showed the capability of the test method to clearly distinguish mixtures with different properties from one another and also the potential of such a method to be used as an evaluating tool in the field. In addition, a simple discrete element model was applied for better understanding the flow of the model material during compaction as a basis for further improvement when moving from the asphalt model material to real mixtures. Therefore, real mixtures were prepared and tested under the same test configuration as for the model materials. The overall results of the real mixtures were found to support the model material test results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015. Vol. 100, no 15, 273-284 p.
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176318DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.09.061ISI: 000364608000029Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84944346091OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-176318DiVA: diva2:866602
Note

Updated from Accepted to Published. QC 20160210

Available from: 2015-11-03 Created: 2015-11-03 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Investigation of asphalt compaction in vision of improving asphalt pavements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of asphalt compaction in vision of improving asphalt pavements
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Asphalt joints are potentially weakest parts of every pavement. Despite of their importance, reliable tools for measuring their mechanical properties for design and performance assessments are still scarce. This is particularly true for cold joints when attaching a new hot pavement to a cold existing one as in case of large patches for pavement repair. In this study, three static fracture testing methods, i.e. indirect tensile test (IDT), direct tension test (DTT) and 4 point bending (4PB), were adapted and used for evaluating different laboratory made joints. The results suggested that joints with inclined interfaces and also the ones with combined interface treatments (preheated and sealed) seemed to show more promising behaviors than the vertical and untreated joints. It was also confirmed that compacting from the hot side towards the joint improved the joint properties due to imposing a different flow pattern as compared to the frequent compaction methods. The latter finding highlighted the importance of asphalt particle rearrangements and flow during the compaction phase as a very little known subject in asphalt industry. Studies on compaction are of special practical importance since they may also contribute to reducing the possibility of over-compaction and aggregate crushing.

Therefore, in this study, a new test method, i.e. Flow Test (FT), was developed to simulate the material flow during compaction. Initially, asphalt materials were substituted by geometrically simple model materials to lower the level of complexity for checking the feasibility of the test method as well as modeling purposes. X-ray radiography images were also used for capturing the flow patterns during the test. Results of the FT on model materials showed the capability of the test method to clearly distinguish between specimens with different characteristics. In addition, a simple discrete element model was applied for a better understanding of the test results as a basis for further improvements when studying real mixtures. Then, real mixtures were prepared and tested under the same FT configuration and the results were found to support the findings from the feasibility tests. The test method also showed its potential for capturing flow pattern differences among different mixtures even without using the X-ray. Therefore, the FT was improved as an attempt towards developing a systematic workability test method focusing on the flow of particles at early stages of compaction and was called the Compaction Flow Test (CFT).

The CFT was used for testing mixtures with different characteristics to identify the parameters with highest impact on the asphalt particle movements under compaction forces. X-ray investigations during the CFT underlined the reliability of the CFT results. In addition, simple discrete element models were successfully generated to justify some of the CFT results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xiv, 23 p.
Series
TRITA-BYMA, ISSN 0349-5752 ; 2015:5
Keyword
Cold asphalt pavement joints, asphalt joint laboratory production, IDT joint evaluation, DTT joint evaluation, 4PB joint evaluation, joints FEM analysis. Discrete Element Modeling (DEM), X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), Compaction Flow Test (CFT), Compactability
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176319 (URN)
Presentation
2015-11-24, B3, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151104

Available from: 2015-11-04 Created: 2015-11-03 Last updated: 2015-11-04Bibliographically approved
2. Flow behavior of asphalt mixtures under compaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flow behavior of asphalt mixtures under compaction
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Asphalt compaction is one of the most important phases of road construction, being the decisive phase when the structure of the asphalt pavement layer is formed. In spite of its importance, the knowledge about this construction phase is still based on empirical and technological background and therefore surprisingly limited. This lack of knowledge is also due to the fact that the existing laboratory scale compaction devices for mix design are not fully capable of simulating the field compaction. The simulation of asphalt compaction in the laboratory is normally focused on the vertical rearrangements of asphalt particles whereas the flow behavior of these particles in other directions is mostly neglected. However, existing literature suggests that the neglected flow is one of the most important factors for the quality of the road construction, particularly in special cases such as asphalt joints. Therefore, building up a better understanding of the flow behavior of asphalt mixtures subjected to compaction loads is needed for improving the quality of the pavements.

In this study, a new test setup, the so called Compaction Flow Test (CFT), was developed to simulate the flow behavior of asphalt mixtures at early stages of compaction. In the first step, feasibility tests were performed, substituting asphalt mixtures by model materials with simple geometries and less complex properties. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) was utilized for capturing 2D radiography images of the flow patterns in the model material during the test. Results of the CFT showed the capability of the new test setup to clearly distinguish between model mixtures with different characteristics. Hence, in the next step, the CFT was applied to real asphalt mixtures and the obtained results were found to support the findings of the feasibility tests with the model materials.

The results from the feasibility tests encouraged examining the possible use of an ultrasonic sensor as alternative to the complex and costly X-ray imaging for flow measurements during the CFT. Hence, the CFT was used along with a distance measuring ultrasonic sensor for testing asphalt mixtures with different characteristics. The test results confirmed that an ultrasonic sensor could be effective for capturing the differences of the flow behavior of asphalt mixtures tested by the CFT. 

In addition, a parametric study with the X-ray setup was carried out to examine the capability of the CFT in reflecting the possible changes of the flow behavior in asphalt mixtures due to the change of construction parameters such as lift thickness, bottom roughness and compaction modes. The results obtained also confirmed the capability of the CFT in showing the possible differences in the flow behavior of the mixtures under the chosen conditions.

The encouraging results suggested that the CFT may have potential to become a simple but effective tool for assessing compactability of the mixtures on-site, right after production in an asphalt plant or before placing the mixture on the road. Hence, discrete element method (DEM) was utilized to understand both the influence of selected boundaries of the CFT and the effect of its design on the results.

As one specific example of application, an investigation was carried out using the CFT to find the most suitable tracking method for flow measurements in the field. Based on the literature review and feasibility tests, a tracking method with the highest potential for conducting flow measurements during field compaction was introduced. X-ray radiography confirmed the validity of the results obtained with the suggested method.

The overall results obtained from this study suggest that the recommended CFT along with the suggested field tracking method may be helpful in building up a comprehensive basis of knowledge on the flow and compaction behavior of asphalt mixtures thus helping to close the gap between the field and laboratory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 59 p.
Series
TRITA-BYMA, ISSN 0349-5752 ; 2017:07
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-219857 (URN)978-91-7729-635-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-01-25, Teknikringen 56, Kemi, våningsplan 3, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Supervisors
Note

QC 20171214

Available from: 2017-12-14 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved

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