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Biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems: Evaluation of two conversion pathsrelevant for different raw materials
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0635-7372
2015 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 106, 1183-1191 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biomass-fuelled polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer a solution for replacing fossilfuel with hydrogen production. This paper uses simulation methods for investigating biomass-fuelledPEMFCs for different raw materials and conversion paths. For liquid and solid biomass, anaerobic diges-tion (AD) and gasification (GF), respectively, are relatively viable and developed conversion technologies.Therefore, the AD-PEMFC system and the GF-PEMFC system are simulated for residential applications inorder to evaluate the performance of the biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems. The results of the evaluationshow that renewable hydrogen-rich gas from manure or forest residues is usable for the PEMFCs andmakes the fuel cell stack work in a stable manner. For 100 kWe generation, the GF-PEMFC system yieldsan excellent technical performance with a 20% electric efficiency and 57% thermal efficiency, whereas theAD-PEMFC system only has an 9% electric efficiency and 13% thermal efficiency due to the low efficiencyof the anaerobic digester (AD) and the high internal heat consumption of the AD and the steam reformer(SR). Additionally, in this study, the environmental performances of the AD-PEMFC and the GF-PEMFC interms of CO2emission offset and land-use efficiency are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon-Elsevier , 2015. Vol. 106, 1183-1191 p.
National Category
Chemical Engineering Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176631DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2015.10.055ISI: 000366063500107Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84945940810OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-176631DiVA: diva2:868024
Note

QC 20151112

Available from: 2015-11-09 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Biomass-fuelled PEM FuelCell systems for small andmedium-sized enterprises
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass-fuelled PEM FuelCell systems for small andmedium-sized enterprises
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Biomass-fuelled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer asolution for replacing fossil fuel for hydrogen production. Through using thebiomass-derived hydrogen as fuel, PEMFCs may become an efficient andsustainable energy system for small and medium-sized enterprises. The aim ofthis thesis is to evaluate the performance and potential applications of biomassfuelledPEMFC systems which are designed to convert biomass to electricity andheat. Biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems are simulated by Aspen plus based ondata collected from experiments and literature.The impact of the quality of the hydrogen-rich gas, anode stoichiometry, CH4content in the biogas and CH4 conversion rate on the performance of the PEMFCis investigated. Also, pinch technology is used to optimize the heat exchangernetwork to improve the power generation and thermal efficiency.For liquid and solid biomass, anaerobic digestion (AD) and gasification (GF),respectively, are relatively viable and developed conversion technologies. ForAD-PEMFC, a steam reformer is also needed to convert biogas to hydrogen-richgas. For 100 kWe generation, the GF-PEMFC system yields a good technicalperformance with 20 % electrical efficiency and 57 % thermal efficiency,whereas the AD-PEMFC system only has 9 % electrical efficiency and 13 %thermal efficiency. This low efficiency is due to the low efficiency of theanaerobic digester (AD) and the high internal heat consumption of the AD andthe steam reformer (SR). For the environmental aspects, the GF-PEMFC systemhas a high CO2 emissions offset factor and the AD-PEMFC system has anefficient land-use.The applications of the biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems are investigated on adairy farm and an olive oil plant. For the dairy farm, manure is used as feedstockto generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. A PEMFC qualified for 40 %electrical efficiency may generate 360 MWh electricity and 680 MWh heat peryear to make a dairy farm with 300 milked cows self-sufficient in a sustainableway. A PEMFC-CHP system designed for an olive oil plant generating annual 50000 m3 solid olive mill waste (SOMW) and 9 000 m3 olive mill waste water(OMW) is simulated based on experimental data from the Biogas2PEM-FCproject1. After the optimization of the heat exchanger network, the PEMFC-CHP 

system can generate 194 kW electricity which corresponds to 62 % of the totalelectricity demand of the olive oil plant.The economic performance of the PEMFC and biogas-fuelled PEMFC areassessed roughly including capital, operation & maintenance (O&M) costs of thebiogas plant and the PEMFC-CHP, the cost of heat and electricity, and the valueof the digestate as fertilizer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xviii, 64 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2015:65
Keyword
PEMFC, renewable hydrogen production, biomass, hydrogen-rich gas, biomass conversion, anaerobic digestion, steam reforming, CO removal, gasification, sustainable energy system
National Category
Energy Systems Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176633 (URN)978-91-7595-755-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-12-04, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151109

Available from: 2015-11-09 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2015-11-09Bibliographically approved

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