Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Biomass-fuelled PEM FuelCell systems for small andmedium-sized enterprises
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Biomass-fuelled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer asolution for replacing fossil fuel for hydrogen production. Through using thebiomass-derived hydrogen as fuel, PEMFCs may become an efficient andsustainable energy system for small and medium-sized enterprises. The aim ofthis thesis is to evaluate the performance and potential applications of biomassfuelledPEMFC systems which are designed to convert biomass to electricity andheat. Biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems are simulated by Aspen plus based ondata collected from experiments and literature.The impact of the quality of the hydrogen-rich gas, anode stoichiometry, CH4content in the biogas and CH4 conversion rate on the performance of the PEMFCis investigated. Also, pinch technology is used to optimize the heat exchangernetwork to improve the power generation and thermal efficiency.For liquid and solid biomass, anaerobic digestion (AD) and gasification (GF),respectively, are relatively viable and developed conversion technologies. ForAD-PEMFC, a steam reformer is also needed to convert biogas to hydrogen-richgas. For 100 kWe generation, the GF-PEMFC system yields a good technicalperformance with 20 % electrical efficiency and 57 % thermal efficiency,whereas the AD-PEMFC system only has 9 % electrical efficiency and 13 %thermal efficiency. This low efficiency is due to the low efficiency of theanaerobic digester (AD) and the high internal heat consumption of the AD andthe steam reformer (SR). For the environmental aspects, the GF-PEMFC systemhas a high CO2 emissions offset factor and the AD-PEMFC system has anefficient land-use.The applications of the biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems are investigated on adairy farm and an olive oil plant. For the dairy farm, manure is used as feedstockto generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. A PEMFC qualified for 40 %electrical efficiency may generate 360 MWh electricity and 680 MWh heat peryear to make a dairy farm with 300 milked cows self-sufficient in a sustainableway. A PEMFC-CHP system designed for an olive oil plant generating annual 50000 m3 solid olive mill waste (SOMW) and 9 000 m3 olive mill waste water(OMW) is simulated based on experimental data from the Biogas2PEM-FCproject1. After the optimization of the heat exchanger network, the PEMFC-CHP 

system can generate 194 kW electricity which corresponds to 62 % of the totalelectricity demand of the olive oil plant.The economic performance of the PEMFC and biogas-fuelled PEMFC areassessed roughly including capital, operation & maintenance (O&M) costs of thebiogas plant and the PEMFC-CHP, the cost of heat and electricity, and the valueof the digestate as fertilizer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , xviii, 64 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2015:65
Keyword [en]
PEMFC, renewable hydrogen production, biomass, hydrogen-rich gas, biomass conversion, anaerobic digestion, steam reforming, CO removal, gasification, sustainable energy system
National Category
Energy Systems Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176633ISBN: 978-91-7595-755-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-176633DiVA: diva2:868037
Public defence
2015-12-04, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151109

Available from: 2015-11-09 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2015-11-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Investigation of the prospect of energy self-sufficiency and technical performance of an integrated PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell), dairy farm and biogas plant system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of the prospect of energy self-sufficiency and technical performance of an integrated PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell), dairy farm and biogas plant system
2014 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 130, 685-691 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A PEMFC fuelled with hydrogen is known for its high efficiency and low local emissions. However, the generation of hydrogen is always a controversial issue for the application of the PEMFC due to the use of fossil fuel and the possible carbon dioxide emissions. Presently, the PEMFC-CHP fed with renewable fuels, such as biogas, appears to be the most attractive energy converter-fuel combination. In this paper, an integrated PEMFC-CHP, a dairy farm and a biogas plant are studied. A PEMFC-CHP fed with reformate gas from the biogas plant generates electricity and heat to a dairy farm and a biogas plant, while the dairy farm delivers wet manure to the biogas plant as the feedstock for biogas production. This integrated system has been modelled for steady-state conditions by using Aspen Plus (R). The results indicate that the wet manure production of a dairy farm with 300 milked cows can support a biogas plant to give 1280 MW h of biogas annually. Based on the biogas production, a PEMFC-CHP with a stack having an electrical efficiency of 40% generates 360 MW h electricity and 680 MW h heat per year, which is enough to cover the energy demand of the whole system while the total efficiency of the PEMFC-CHP system is 82%. The integrated PEMFC-CHP, dairy farm and biogas plant could make the dairy farm and the biogas plant self-sufficient in a sustainable way provided the PEMFC-CHP has the electrical efficiency stated above. The effect of the methane conversion rate and the biogas composition on the system performance is discussed. Moreover, compared with the coal-fired CUP plant, the potentially avoided fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of this self-sufficient system are also calculated.

Keyword
PEMFC-CHP, Biogas, Biogas plant, Dairy farm, Integration
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-150900 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.04.043 (DOI)000340311500069 ()2-s2.0-84904794227 (Scopus ID)
Conference
5th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), JUL 01-04, 2013, Pretoria, SOUTH AFRICA
Note

QC 20140915

Available from: 2014-09-15 Created: 2014-09-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. Cogeneration PEM fuel cell system fuelled by olive mill wastes for its application in an olive oil plant
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cogeneration PEM fuel cell system fuelled by olive mill wastes for its application in an olive oil plant
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176632 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-11-09 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2015-11-12Bibliographically approved
3. Biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems: Evaluation of two conversion pathsrelevant for different raw materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems: Evaluation of two conversion pathsrelevant for different raw materials
2015 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 106, 1183-1191 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biomass-fuelled polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer a solution for replacing fossilfuel with hydrogen production. This paper uses simulation methods for investigating biomass-fuelledPEMFCs for different raw materials and conversion paths. For liquid and solid biomass, anaerobic diges-tion (AD) and gasification (GF), respectively, are relatively viable and developed conversion technologies.Therefore, the AD-PEMFC system and the GF-PEMFC system are simulated for residential applications inorder to evaluate the performance of the biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems. The results of the evaluationshow that renewable hydrogen-rich gas from manure or forest residues is usable for the PEMFCs andmakes the fuel cell stack work in a stable manner. For 100 kWe generation, the GF-PEMFC system yieldsan excellent technical performance with a 20% electric efficiency and 57% thermal efficiency, whereas theAD-PEMFC system only has an 9% electric efficiency and 13% thermal efficiency due to the low efficiencyof the anaerobic digester (AD) and the high internal heat consumption of the AD and the steam reformer(SR). Additionally, in this study, the environmental performances of the AD-PEMFC and the GF-PEMFC interms of CO2emission offset and land-use efficiency are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon-Elsevier, 2015
National Category
Chemical Engineering Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176631 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2015.10.055 (DOI)000366063500107 ()2-s2.0-84945940810 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151112

Available from: 2015-11-09 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
4. Fuel cell based cogeneration: Comparison of electricity production cost for Swedish conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fuel cell based cogeneration: Comparison of electricity production cost for Swedish conditions
Show others...
2013 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 38, no 10, 3858-3864 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A good portion of greenhouse gas emissions is caused by the energy used in the built environment. Emission reduction goals may be achieved by combining cogeneration with fuel cells (PC). This paper investigates electricity production costs for PC based cogeneration systems with recent data for Swedish conditions. The types of FCs that are investigated are proton exchange membrane PC and molten carbonate FC. Based solely on cost, PC based cogeneration systems cannot compete with conventional systems. However, our results show that Molten Carbonate PC based cogeneration systems will be profitable by 2020. To compete with conventional systems, the capital cost, lifetime and efficiency of FCs must be improved. Creation of a reasonably broad market is essential since it will greatly help to reduce capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs, the dominating parts of the overall costs according to the analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2013
Keyword
Cogeneration, Fuel cells, MCFC, PEMFC, Sweden
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-121464 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.01.178 (DOI)000316714200004 ()2-s2.0-84875212412 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20130502

QC 20151215

Available from: 2013-05-02 Created: 2013-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. The economic performance of an integrated biogas plant and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power system (PEMFC-CHP) in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The economic performance of an integrated biogas plant and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power system (PEMFC-CHP) in Sweden
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power system (PEMFC-CHP) fuelled by the hydrogen-rich gas reformed from biogas may be seen as an efficient and sustainable technology. This system can provide electrical and thermal energy dynamically to residential applications. In this study, an assessment of the economic performance of an integrated biogas plant and PEMFC-CHP for Swedish electricity and heat prices is presented. The economic factors considered are the capital and operation & maintenance (O&M) costs of the biogas plant and the PEMFC-CHP, the price of heat and electricity, and the value of the digestate as fertilizer. The analysis includes two cases: 1) both biogas plant and PEMFC-CHP are located on the farm. The farm sells the electricity and heat to the power grid and district heating system, respectively; 2) the PEMFC-CHP is located in a centralized-biogas plant, not on the farm. The manure is transported from farms to the plant. The plant also sells the electricity and heat to the power grid and district heating system. The results show that the farm-based and the centralized biogas plant have almost the same biogas production cost. The electricity cost of today, expected for 2020, and for the break-even of this integrated system are 530, 305 and 197 €/MWh, respectively. With the current trend of the fuel cell industry development, this break-even price may be reached in the near future.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168127 (URN)10.1115/FuelCell2014-6713 (DOI)000359449100018 ()2-s2.0-84912074464 (Scopus ID)
Conference
ASME 2014 12th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, FUELCELL 2014 Collocated with the ASME 2014 8th International Conference on Energy Sustainability; Boston; United States
Note

QC 20150601

Available from: 2015-06-01 Created: 2015-05-27 Last updated: 2015-11-09Bibliographically approved
6. An overview of biomass-fuelled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An overview of biomass-fuelled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems
2015 (English)In: CLEAN, EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE ENERGY FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE, Elsevier, 2015, 2003-2008 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

PEMFC fuelled by biomass-derived hydrogen is an efficient and sustainable energy system for small-scale residential applications. Gasification and anaerobic digestion combined with steam reforming are seen as the most suitable conversion processes for hydrogen production. Since the biomass-derived hydrogen contains many kinds of contaminants including CO, CO2, H2S, NH3 and N-2, extensive work has been done on the mechanism and mitigation methods for their poisoning the PEMFC. Although the biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems have been tested in several experiments and checked through simulation work for different perspectives, further research and demonstration work are required to improve the system efficiency and reliability. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Series
Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102 ; 75
Keyword
Biomass, PEMFC, Anearobic digestion, Steam reforming, Gasification
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174952 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.257 (DOI)000361030003040 ()2-s2.0-84947093360 (Scopus ID)
Conference
7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), MAR 28-31, 2015, Abu Dhabi, U ARAB EMIRATES
Note

QC 20151027

Available from: 2015-10-27 Created: 2015-10-09 Last updated: 2015-11-09Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Thesis(1529 kB)423 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1529 kBChecksum SHA-512
2d2776eae66b70765db530a5b08f25a3c2052590c8fa91ba6560282343b7ac15947e3a16cb3febc6204218dc2cd391e31b20ad0a061a3a59634d9acd3dc9e537
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Guan, Tingting
By organisation
Energy Processes
Energy SystemsChemical Process Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 423 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 886 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf