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Modeling urban energy flows at macro and district levels: towards a sustainable urban metabolism
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The urban sustainability is a growing importance in the built environment research. Urban areas play a key role in planning for sustainable city development. Urbanization has implications for future energy systems and energy-related emissions. The new built environment requires systems that are cost-efficient and have more efficient utilization of energy with a low environmental impact. This can be analyzed and designed with efficient tools for current and future energy systems. The objectives of this dissertation are to examine and analyze the metabolic flows of urban areas, and to develop a methodology for optimization of energy systems and services for the urban district. The dissertation is comprised of two phases and eight appended publications.

In the first phase of this dissertation, the research is emphasized on an in-depth understanding of the complex dynamics of energy utilization in large urban areas. An integrated approach applied in this phase includes the energetic urban metabolism, the long-term energy systems modeling using the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) system, and the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) approach. The urban metabolism approach has been employed to analyze the urban energy flows at macro level. The LEAP model and MCDM approach have been used to develop and evaluate energy scenarios in both demand and supply sides.

In the second phase, the research recognizes the lack of tools that applicable for district energy systems analysis. This phase concentrates on the important role of the district level in urban energy systems. Research methods include the Multi-Objective Optimization using Genetic Algorithms, the carbon budget approach, and the case study method. Research in the second phase is mainly focused on the development of tool for energy systems and services at the district level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , 86 p.
Series
TRITA-IES, 2015:07
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176828ISBN: 978-91-7595-794-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-176828DiVA: diva2:868246
Public defence
2015-11-30, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151110

Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2015-11-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Energy analysis for sustainable mega-cities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy analysis for sustainable mega-cities
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

ABSTRACT

Cities throughout Asia have experienced unprecedented economic development over the past decades. In many cases this has contributed to their rapid and uncontrolled growth, which has resulted in a multiplicity of problems, including rapid population increase, enhanced environmental pollution, collapsing traffic systems, dysfunctional waste management, and rapid increases in the consumption of energy, water and other resources. The significant energy use in cities is not very well perceived in Asian countries. Although a number of studies into energy consumption across various sectors have been conducted, most are from the national point of view. Energy demand analysis is not considered important at the level of the city. The thesis is focused on the dynamics of energy utilization in Asian mega-cities, and ultimately aims at providing strategies for maximizing the use of renewable energy in large urban systems.

The study aims at providing an in-depth understanding of the complex dynamics of energy utilization in urban mega-centers. An initial general analysis is complemented by a detailed study of the current situation and future outlook for the city of Bangkok, Thailand. An integrated approach applied to the study includes identification of the parameters that affect the utilization of energy in mega-cities and a detailed analysis of energy flows and their various subsystems, including commercial, industrial, residential and that of transportation. The study investigates and evaluates the energy models most commonly used for analyzing and simulating energy utilization. Its purpose is to provide a user-friendly tool suitable for decision-makers in developing an energy model for large cities. In addition, a Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) process has been developed to assess whether or not the energy systems meet the sustainability criteria.

A metabolic approach has been employed to analyze the energy flow and utilization in selected Asian mega-cities, including Bangkok, Beijing, Shanghai, and Tokyo. The approach is applied to measure the majority of indirect energy flows or the energy embodied in the flows of goods and services involving the residents of those cities. Since the function of cities is to serve the lives of the residents, indirect energy consumption could be regarded as being of equal importance as that of direct energy use. The essence of embodied energy is that an indirect reflection upon behavior following direct energy consumption. It can illustrate how a city relies on the outside, for example other cities, countries, etc. and provides some interesting information that cannot be easily drawn from the direct energy demand. The study reveals that the indirect energy demand is more significant than the direct energy demand in Bangkok, Shanghai, and Tokyo, while direct energy demand is greater than the indirect energy demand in Beijing. This can be explained by the fact that Bangkok, Shanghai, and Tokyo have a greater reliance upon the outside in terms of energy demand.

The Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) system has been selected to perform Bangkok energy modeling. In a Bangkok case study a range of policy interventions are selected and how these would change the energy development in Bangkok by the year 2025 is examined. Different policies can be grouped by the sectors analyzed. The only supply-side policy considered meets an existing target of having 10% of electricity generated from renewable sources. The study period for the model started in 2005 and ends in 2025, with the year 2000 taken as the base year. The proposed scenarios were evaluated using the MCDM approach to rate their sustainability. Team members found that this method provided a methodology to help decision-makers to systematically identify management objectives and priorities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006. 148 p.
Series
Trita-REFR, ISSN 1102-0245 ; 06:52
Keyword
Asian mega-cities, energy demand, metabolism of cities, energy modeling, sustainable energy, energy planning, multi-criteria decision-making
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4097 (URN)91-7178-388-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2006-09-20, M263, Brinellvägen 68, KTH, Department of Energy Technology, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101123Available from: 2006-09-12 Created: 2006-09-12 Last updated: 2015-11-10Bibliographically approved
2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Global Cities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Global Cities
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 19, 7297-7302 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The world's population is now over 50% urban, and cities make an important contribution to national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Many cities are developing strategies to reduce their emissions. Here we ask how and why emissions differ between cities. Our study often global cities shows how a balance of geophysical factors (climate, access to resources, and gateway status) and technical factors (power generation, urban design, and waste processing) determine the GHGs attributable to cities. Within the overall trends, however, there are differences between cities with more or less public transit while personal income also impacts heating and industrial fuel use. By including upstream emissions from fuels, GHG emissions attributable to cities exceed those from direct end use by up to 25%. Our findings should help foster intercity learning on reducing GHG emissions.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176831 (URN)10.1021/es900213p (DOI)000270136500025 ()19848137 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-70349617486 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151110

Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
3. Methodology for inventorying greenhouse gas emissions from global cities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methodology for inventorying greenhouse gas emissions from global cities
Show others...
2010 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 9, 4828-4837 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes the methodology and data used to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions attributable to ten cities or city-regions: Los Angeles County, Denver City and County, Greater Toronto, New York City, Greater London, Geneva Canton, Greater Prague, Barcelona, Cape Town and Bangkok. Equations for determining emissions are developed for contributions from: electricity; heating and industrial fuels; ground transportation fuels; air and marine fuels; industrial processes; and waste. Gasoline consumption is estimated using three approaches: from local fuel sales; by scaling from regional fuel sales; and from counts of vehicle kilometres travelled. A simplified version of an intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) method for estimating the GHG emissions from landfill waste is applied. Three measures of overall emissions are suggested: (i) actual emissions within the boundary of the city; (ii) single process emissions (from a life-cycle perspective) associated with the city's metabolism; and (iii) life-cycle emissions associated with the city's metabolism. The results and analysis of the study will be published in a second paper.

Keyword
Urban metabolism, Life-cycle analysis, Climate change
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176832 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2009.08.050 (DOI)000279743500008 ()2-s2.0-77953383307 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151110

Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
4. A proposal of urban district carbon budgets for sustainable urban development projects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A proposal of urban district carbon budgets for sustainable urban development projects
2013 (English)In: Sustainability in Energy and Buildings: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference in Sustainability in Energy and Buildings (SEB´12), Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, 947-954 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Energy security and carbon emissions are key issues for policy-makers and research communities worldwide. Climate change mitigation poses many challenges for all levels of society. Energy-related carbon emissions in urban areas have received a great deal of attention. This paper builds on the principle that urban areas are major sources of emissions and play an important role in the carbon cycle. Urban development can serve as a cornerstone for achieving transition towards a sustainable city. This paper proposes and describes a framework for carbon budgets with a focus on urban district level. The urban district carbon budget is a mechanism for embedding long-term total emission restrictions into the urban economy. This paper proposes a proposal of urban district carbon budgets in an effort to provide the figure for emission allowances that can be emitted in a given amount of time. The paper presents a design framework of urban district carbon budgets and discusses the scope and scale of carbon budget allocation approaches. It also examines the emission reduction potential and co-benefits of the proposal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013
Series
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, ISSN 2190-3018 ; 22
Keyword
Carbon budgets, Climate change, Sustainability, Urban districts, Climate change mitigation, Emission allowances, Emission reduction potentials, Research communities, Sustainable cities, Sustainable urban development, Budget control, Emission control, Sustainable development, Urban growth, Carbon
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134144 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-36645-1_83 (DOI)2-s2.0-84879458647 (Scopus ID)978-364236644-4 (ISBN)
Conference
Sustainability in Energy and Buildings, SEB'12 Stockholm, Sweden 3 - 5 September 2012
Note

QC 20131120

Available from: 2013-11-20 Created: 2013-11-18 Last updated: 2015-11-10Bibliographically approved
5. Distributed energy resource systems towards carbon-neutral urban development: A review and application
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed energy resource systems towards carbon-neutral urban development: A review and application
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176833 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2015-11-10Bibliographically approved
6. Optimization of Energy Supply Systems for a Sustainable District in Stockholm Using Genetic Algorithms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of Energy Supply Systems for a Sustainable District in Stockholm Using Genetic Algorithms
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the World Sustainable Buildings Conference 2014, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176836 (URN)
Conference
the World Sustainable Buildings Conference 2014, Barcelona, Spain, October 28-30, 2014
Note

QC 20151110

Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2015-11-10Bibliographically approved
7. Energy system and service optimization for building clusters of new urban development: Applying multi-objective genetic algorithms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy system and service optimization for building clusters of new urban development: Applying multi-objective genetic algorithms
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176838 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2015-11-10Bibliographically approved
8. A Framework for Integrated Energy Systems, Infrastructure, and Services Optimization with Visualization and Simulation Platform for Low-carbon Precincts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework for Integrated Energy Systems, Infrastructure, and Services Optimization with Visualization and Simulation Platform for Low-carbon Precincts
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Symposium for Next Generation Infrastructure, 1 - 3 October 2013, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The energy informatics can be enhanced to support decision-making, communication and benchmarking of the energy performance both in design and operational phases. To enable engineers, developers and policy-makers to better understand the implications of energy systems and services, computer-generated visualization is a powerful tool to inform a range of technological options and to analyze the effects of energy system strategies. Visualization increases the transparency of results and the understanding of interactions between users and energy systems. This paper presents a novel conceptual framework for integrating energy systems, infrastructure and services optimization with a visualization and simulation platform. It focuses on the development of a tool for low-carbon energy systems and high quality energy services at precinct scale. The paper describes the vision and architectural design for the integrated framework. It is expected to serve as a next generation approach to managing energy services, carbon emissions and efficient resource use in the built environment. This will help to deliver new environmentally sustainable infrastructure and achieve carbon neutrality in urban development.

National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-152897 (URN)10.14453/isngi2013.proc.37 (DOI)
Conference
International Symposium for Next Generation Infrastructure, wollongong, australia, October 1-3, 2013
Note

QC 20150205

Available from: 2014-10-02 Created: 2014-10-02 Last updated: 2015-11-10Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
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  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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