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Spin-Torque and Spin-Hall Nano-Oscillators
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1686-7923
Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1271-1814
Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg and Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology.
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(English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE, ISSN 0018-9219, E-ISSN 1558-2256Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

This paper reviews the state of the art in spin-torque and spin Hall effect driven nano-oscillators. After a brief introduction to the underlying physics, the authors discuss different implementations of these oscillators, their functional properties in terms of frequency range, output power, phase noise, and modulation rates, and their inherent propensity for mutual synchronization. Finally, the potential for these oscillators in a wide range of applications, from microwave signal sources and detectors to neuromorphic computation elements, is discussed together with the specific electronic circuitry that has so far been designed to harness this potential.

Keyword [en]
Spintronics, Microwaves, Spin transfer torque, Spin Hall effect
National Category
Nano Technology Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Materials Engineering Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176889OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-176889DiVA: diva2:868735
Note

QS 2016

Available from: 2015-11-11 Created: 2015-11-11 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Spin Torque Oscillator Modeling, CMOS Design and STO-CMOS Integration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spin Torque Oscillator Modeling, CMOS Design and STO-CMOS Integration
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Spin torque oscillators (STOs) are microwave oscillators with an attractive blend of features, including a more-than-octave tunability, GHz operating frequencies, nanoscale size, nanosecond switching speed and full compatibility with CMOS technology. Over the past decade, STOs' physical phenomena have been explored to a greater extent, their performance has been further improved, and STOs have already shown great potential for a wide range of applications, from microwave sources and detectors to neuromorphic computing. This thesis is devoted to promoting the STO technology towards its applications, by means of implementing the STO's electrical model, dedicated CMOS integrated circuits (ICs), and STO-CMOS IC integration.

An electrical model, which can capture magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) STO's characteristics, while enabling system- and circuit-level designs and performance evaluations, is of great importance for the development of MTJ STO-based applications. A comprehensive and compact analytical model, which is based on macrospin approximations and can fulfill the aforementioned requirements, is proposed. This model is fully implemented in Verilog-A, and can be used for efficient simulations of various MTJ STOs. Moreover, an accurate phase noise generation approach, which ensures a reliable model, is proposed and successfully used in the Verilog-A model implementation. The model is experimentally validated by three different MTJ STOs under different bias conditions.

CMOS circuits, which can enhance the limited output power of MTJ STOs to levels that are required in different applications, are proposed, implemented and tested. A novel balun-low noise amplifier (LNA), which can offer sufficient gain, bandwidth and linearity for MTJ STO-based magnetic field sensing applications, is proposed. Additionally, a wideband amplifier, which can be connected to an MTJ STO to form a highly-tunable microwave oscillator in a phase-locked loop (PLL), is also proposed. The measurement results demonstrate that the proposed circuits can be used to develop MTJ STO-based magnetic field sensing and microwave source applications.

The investigation of possible STO-CMOS IC integration approaches demonstrates that the wire-bonding-based integration is the most suitable approach. Therefore, a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) STO is integrated with its dedicated CMOS IC, which provides the necessary functions, using the wire-bonding-based approach. The RF characterization of the integrated GMR STO-CMOS IC system under different magnetic fields and DC currents shows that such an integration can eliminate wave reflections. These findings open the possibility of using GMR STOs in magnetic field sensing and microwave source applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. xxvi, 81 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT, 2015:19
Keyword
STO technology, microwave oscillator, analytical model, macrospin approximation, Verilog-A model, high frequency CMOS circuits, balun-LNA, STO-IC integration
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176890 (URN)978-91-7595-750-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-12-07, Sal C, Isafjordsgatan 22, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20151112

Available from: 2015-11-12 Created: 2015-11-11 Last updated: 2015-11-12Bibliographically approved

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Chen, TingsuMalm, B. GunnarRusu, Ana

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