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System Design for Opportunistic Networks
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9176-3454
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Device-to-device communication has been suggested as a complement to traditional cellular networks as a means of offloading cellular traffic. In this thesis we explore a solution for device-to-device communication based on opportunistic content distribution in a content-centric network. Communication opportunities arise as mobile nodes roam around in an area and occasionally enter in direct communication range with one another. We consider a node to be a pedestrian equipped with a mobile device and explore the properties of opportunistic communication in the context of content dissemination in urban areas.

The contributions of this thesis lie in three areas. We first study human mobility as one of the main enablers of opportunistic communication. We introduce traces collected from a realistic pedestrian mobility simulator and demonstrate that the performance of opportunistic networks is not very sensitive to the accurate estimation of the probability distributions of mobility parameters. However, capturing the space in which mobility occurs may be of high importance. Secondly, we design and implement a middleware for opportunistic content-centric networking, and we evaluate it via a small-scale testbed, as well as through extensive simulations. We conclude that energy-saving mechanisms should be part of the middleware design, while caching should be considered only as an add-on feature. Thirdly, we present and evaluate three different energy-saving mechanisms in the context of opportunistic networking: a dual-radio architecture, an asynchronous duty-cycling scheme, and an energy-aware algorithm which takes into account node selfishness. We evaluate our proposals analytically and via simulations. We demonstrate that when a critical mass of participants is available, the performance of the opportunistic network is comparable to downloading contents directly via the cellular network in terms of energy consumption while offloading large traffic volumes from the operator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. , vi, 59 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2015:104
Keyword [en]
opportunistic communication, system design, mobility, energy-saving mechanisms, device-to-device communication, mobile data offloading
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176479ISBN: 978-91-7595-778-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-176479DiVA: diva2:868767
Public defence
2015-12-11, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151120

Available from: 2015-11-20 Created: 2015-11-05 Last updated: 2015-12-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Opportunistic Communication and Human Mobility
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opportunistic Communication and Human Mobility
2014 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, ISSN 1536-1233, E-ISSN 1558-0660, Vol. 13, no 7, 1597-1610 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many mobility models currently used for evaluating wireless communication systems have weak resemblance to reality and there is a lack of understanding on which characteristics of human mobility affect system performance. In particular, most current mobility models assume a free flow of nodes and do not consider how mobility is affected by interactions with other persons and with the physical environment. They also assume a closed system, not considering the effect of node arrival and departure. The structure of space in which the mobility occurs is either not considered at all, or only in a limited way. In this work, we address human pedestrian mobility for evaluation of wireless communication to determine which of the aforementioned aspects need to be captured and to what level of detail. We focus on opportunistic communication in the form of ad-hoc and delay-tolerant networks. For the evaluation, we use mobility models from the field of transportation and urban planning that are used for designing and dimensioning public spaces for comfort and safety of pedestrians in rush hour and emergency evacuation. The models capture micro-mobility of pedestrians better than most mobility models used in mobile networking since the application domain requires realistic representation of node interactions with the physical environment and with other nodes. Our results show that the free flow assumption used in most models does not have a significant performance impact. We also conclude that performance is not very sensitive to accurate estimation of the probability distributions of mobility parameters such as speed and arrival process. Our results, however, suggest that it is important to capture the scenario and space in which mobility occurs since these may affect performance significantly.

Keyword
Mobility models, opportunistic networking, wireless systems
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-149212 (URN)10.1109/TMC.2013.160 (DOI)000339169100016 ()2-s2.0-84903788775 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140819

Available from: 2014-08-19 Created: 2014-08-18 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. A Middleware for Opportunistic Content Distribution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Middleware for Opportunistic Content Distribution
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In this work we present a middleware architecture for a mobile peer-to-peer content distribution system. Our architecture allows wireless content dissemination between mobile nodes without relying on infrastructure support. In addition, it supports the dissemination of contents between the wireless ad-hoc domain and the wired Internet. In the ad-hoc domain, contents are exchanged opportunistically when nodes are within communication range. Applications access the service of our platform through a publish/subscribe interface and therefore do not have to deal with low-level opportunistic networking issues or matching and soliciting of contents. Our middleware consists of three key components. A content structure that facilitates dividing contents into logical topics and allows efficient matching of content lookups and downloading under sporadic node connectivity. A solicitation protocol that allows nodes to solicit content meta-information in order to discover contents available at a neighboring node and to download content entries disjointedly from different nodes. An API that allows applications to access the system services through a publish/subscribe interface. In this work we present the design and implementation of our middleware and describe a set of applications that use the services provided by our middleware. We also assess the performance of the system using our Android implementation as well as a simulation implementation for large-scale evaluation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
middleware, opportunistic communication, device-to-device communication, mobile wireless networks, content distribution
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176474 (URN)10.1016/j.comnet.2016.05.026 (DOI)2-s2.0-84988919169 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160608

Available from: 2015-11-05 Created: 2015-11-05 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
3. Device-to-Device Mobile Data Offloading for Music Streaming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Device-to-Device Mobile Data Offloading for Music Streaming
2016 (English)In: 2016 IFIP Networking Conference (IFIP Networking) and Workshops, IFIP Networking 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, 377-385 p., 7497219Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Device-to-device communication (also referred to as opportunistic networking) is considered a feasible means for offloading mobile data traffic. Due to the sporadic nature of contact opportunities, applications in the domain of device-todevice communication are assumed to be delay-tolerant, with content delivery deadlines being in the order of hours. However, predictions suggest that by 2020 more than 75% of the traffic volumes at mobile operators will be generated by multimedia contents which is often seen as data served in real-time. In this paper we explore how the concept of opportunistic networking can be used for dissemination of real-time streaming contents for users in urban environments without degrading quality of experience. We first present a general framework for offloading multimedia data that is organized in terms of playlists, and we then investigate the performance of the framework in realistic urban environments using the music streaming service Spotify as a use-case. Our results show that it is feasible to use opportunistic device-to-device communication in the context of music streaming. We demonstrate that the system performance is insensitive to a number of parameters such as playlist length distribution, and initial content availability distribution, however it exhibits sensitivity towards the amount of requested data and the node density.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
Keyword
mobile data offloading, device-to-device communication, opportunistic networking, music streaming, Spotify
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176477 (URN)10.1109/IFIPNetworking.2016.7497219 (DOI)000383224900043 ()2-s2.0-84982283841 (Scopus ID)978-3-9018-8283-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 IFIP Networking Conference (IFIP Networking) and Workshops, IFIP Networking 2016, Vienna, Austria, 17 May 2016 through 19 May 2016
Note

QC 20161019

Available from: 2015-11-05 Created: 2015-11-05 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
4. Evaluating an Energy-efficient Radio Architecture for Opportunistic Communication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating an Energy-efficient Radio Architecture for Opportunistic Communication
2012 (English)In: Communications (ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, 5751-5756 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A major challenge for wireless networks is to minimize the energy consumption in the mobile devices. This work evaluates potential performance gains of a dual-radio architecture in which a low power radio is used to wake up the primary high power radio. Our targeted domain is opportunistic communication directly between devices. We show that it can significantly reduce the energy consumption at a price of slightly decreased goodput. We also examine the effect of the MAC protocol on the performance of the dual-radio system and we point out that in dense scenarios MAC layer protocols, such as of 802.15.4, do not perform well. We observe that information on device density of an environment can be used to address this shortcoming.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Series
IEEE International Conference on Communications, ISSN 1550-3607
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100014 (URN)10.1109/ICC.2012.6364747 (DOI)000312855706011 ()2-s2.0-84871978592 (Scopus ID)978-145772052-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC 2012;Ottawa, ON;10 June 2012 through 15 June 2012
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note

QC 20120803

Available from: 2012-08-03 Created: 2012-08-02 Last updated: 2015-11-20Bibliographically approved
5. Impact of Duty Cycling on Opportunistic Communication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Duty Cycling on Opportunistic Communication
2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, ISSN 1536-1233, E-ISSN 1558-0660, Vol. 15, no 7, 1686-1698 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A major challenge in mobile wireless devices for opportunistic networks is to decrease the energy consumption. The decrease should not come at a cost of reduced application throughput (i.e. goodput). This work evaluates the potential performance gains for mobile nodes that adopt duty cycling in an opportunistic context. The paper presents an analytical framework for evaluating goodput and energy consumption of nodes based on a probabilistic estimation of effective contact durations, and it validates this framework on a mobility scenario. The study shows that both goodput and energy consumption depend strongly on the distribution of listening durations, and that goodput is independent of the contact rate among nodes. This work also includes extensive trace-driven simulations and demonstrates that duty cycling considerably improves the performance of opportunistic networks by decreasing the energy consumption without significantly affecting the goodput.

Keyword
energy savings, energy-goodput trade-off, opportunistic communication, duty-cycling, wireless systems
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175758 (URN)10.1109/TMC.2015.2478470 (DOI)000378499000008 ()2-s2.0-84976599198 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20161208

Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
6. Energy-Aware Opportunistic Mobile Data Offloading Under Full and Limited Cooperation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy-Aware Opportunistic Mobile Data Offloading Under Full and Limited Cooperation
2016 (English)In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703X, Vol. 84, 84-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Opportunistic networking (a.k.a. device-to-device communication) is considered a feasible means for offloading mobile data traffic. Since mobile nodes are battery-powered, opportunistic networks must be expected to satisfy the user demand without greatly affecting battery lifetime. To address this requirement, this work introduces progressive selfishness, an adaptive and scalable energy-aware algorithm for opportunistic networks used in the context of mobile data offloading. The paper evaluates the performance of progressive selfishness in terms of both application throughput and energy consumption via extensive trace-driven simulations of realistic pedestrian behavior. The evaluation considers two modes of nodal cooperation: full and limited, with respect to the percentage of nodes in the system that adopt progressive selfishness. The paper demonstrates that under full cooperation the proposed algorithm is robust against the distributions of node density and initial content availability. The results show that in certain scenarios progressive selfishness achieves up to 85% energy savings during opportunistic downloads while sacrificing less than 1% in application throughput. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that in terms of total energy consumption (by both cellular and opportunistic downloads) in dense environments the performance of progressive selfishness is comparable to downloading contents directly from a mobile network. Finally, the paper shows that progressive selfishness is robust against the presence of non-cooperative nodes in the system, and that in certain scenarios the system-level performance does not deteriorate significantly under limited cooperation even when 50% of the nodes in the system do not adhere to the specifics of the algorithm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
mobile data offloading, selfishness, duty cycling, energy savings, opportunistic networking
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176472 (URN)10.1016/j.comcom.2016.02.008 (DOI)2-s2.0-84962157148 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160429

Available from: 2015-11-05 Created: 2015-11-05 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
7. From Opportunistic Networks to 3GPP Network-Independent Device-to-Device Communication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Opportunistic Networks to 3GPP Network-Independent Device-to-Device Communication
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Device-to-device (D2D) communication is being proposed as a complement to traditional communication via cellular networks. D2D establishes a direct communication link between mobile devices instead of relaying traffic through the cellular infrastructure. While D2D is currently one of the popular research topics in telecommunications, the concept of allowing devices in proximity to communicate directly with one another has been extensively studied for more than a decade under the name opportunistic communication. We here compare 3GPP’s network-independent D2D communication to opportunistic communication and demonstrate that they share a number of common characteristics. We discuss which best practices from the opportunistic networking domain may be applied to networkindependent D2D, and outline open questions in the D2D design that have not been answered by previous research efforts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015. 7 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; TRITA-EE 2015:99
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-175755 (URN)
Note

QC 20160129

Available from: 2015-11-05 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2016-01-29Bibliographically approved

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