Missing class groups and class number statistics for imaginary quadratic fields
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
The number F(h) of imaginary quadratic fields with a given class number h is of classical interest: Gauss' class number problem asks for a determination of those fields counted by F(h). The unconditional computation of F(h) for h up to 100 was completed by M. Watkins, using ideas of Goldfeld and Gross-Zagier; Soundararajan has more recently made conjectures about the order of magnitude of F(h) as h increases without bound, and determined its average order. In the present paper, we refine Soundararajan's conjecture to a conjectural asymptotic formula and also consider the subtler problem of determining the number F(G) of imaginary quadratic fields with class group isomorphic to a given finite abelian group G. Using Watkins' tables, one can show that some abelian groups do not occur as the class group of any imaginary quadratic field (for instance the elementary abelian group of order 27 does not). This observation is explained in part by the Cohen-Lenstra heuristics, which have often been used to study the distribution of the p-part of an imaginary quadratic class group. We combine heuristics of Cohen-Lenstra together with our refinement of Soundararajan's conjecture to make precise predictions about the asymptotic nature of the entire imaginary quadratic class group, in particular addressing the above-mentioned phenomenon of "missing" class groups, for the case of p-groups as p tends to infinity. Furthermore, conditionally on the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis, we extend Watkins' data, tabulating F(h) for odd h up to 10^6 and F(G) for G a p-group of odd order with |G| up to 10^6. The numerical evidence matches quite well with our conjectures.
class groups, class numbers
Research subject Mathematics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-177288OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-177288DiVA: diva2:872109
QS 20152015-11-172015-11-172015-12-04Bibliographically approved