Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE credits
Economic development and growing integration process of world trade increases the demand for road transport. In 2008, the freight transportation by road in Sweden reached 42 million tonne-kilometers. Sweden has a tradition of long and heavy trucks combinations. Lots of larger vehicles, with a maximum length of 25.25 meters and weight of 60 tonnes, are used in national traffic. Heavier road transport and widely use of large vehicles contribute to the damages of pavement. According to a recent research by the VTI, total cost of road wear by freight transport in Sweden in 2005 was about 676 million SEK. If the weights of all vehicles were limited to 40 tonnes, according to the new EU rules, the cost of wear in 2005 would have been 140 million SEK less.
Lots of studies about road damage caused by vehicle have been done since the last decades. It has been found that the dynamic tyre force plays an important role in the damages of pavement. However, the influence of vehicle-pavement interaction on pavement damage has not been investigated to any large extent yet. The aim of this study is to provide suitable computational truck models, study the influence of vehicle-pavement interaction and parameters of vehicle on pavement damage.
To fulfil the aims, this study presents vehicle models, including quarter, half, full vehicle models and quarter vehicle model coupled with pavement, used to compute the dynamic tyre force. The different models are then compared. Two actual road profiles measured by laser, a smooth one and an uneven one, are used for evaluation. The models are analysed to find out the vehicle parameters that influence the road damage most and to learn about how detailed models are needed.
It’s found that difference does exist between more detailed models and less detailed ones, and it’s non-negligible. It will increase with the increase of road unevenness. The dynamic tyre force will not be affected much by coupling the pavement, unless the road surface is very uneven or wheel hop exists. On uneven roads, energy mainly dissipates in vehicle suspension. However, on even roads, vibration can be well damped in tyre before it reaches suspension, so most of energy dissipates in tyre. Different components influence the tyre force differently. The influence varies with different frequency range of input signal (road profile) as well. The effects of sprung parts are mainly in low frequency range, while the effects of unsprung parts are mainly in high frequency range. Parameters of vehicle body influence the dynamic tyre force most. The effect of cabin is much smaller compared to vehicle body and unsprung part. Changes in parameters of pavement will not influence the road load, but its resonant frequency. Therefore, the best way to reduce dynamic tyre load is to design a more lightweight vehicle body, softer and better damped suspension.
2013. , 54 p.