Teachers’ experiences and expectations in ICT integration at Tanzanian Secondary schools and Teacher Training Colleges: Focus on classroom teachers and the culture
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
On the policy level, Tanzania has strongly committed to information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported education on all levels of education. National Policy documents give ICT a high priority in development of the country's educational system. Curricula have been revamped to accommodate for the increased role of ICT in the society and education. Also, educational institutions have explicated high expectations of ICT in the process of "massification of education." Several research studies, however, have showed little change in the classrooms. Surveys and case studies have showed that, on the way from policy documents to strategy level and implementation level, something gets missing. The lack of ICT in education is clear in primary and secondary schools, which is unsurprising, given that the majority of schools also lack electricity and basic classroom facilities and other facilities. This study set out to investigate; using thematic interviews of secondary school teachers in Tanzania, what processes and support structures do teachers have in the classroom, what they consider to be lacking in terms of ICT supported education, and the countermeasures teachers they apply in that regard. Informants from teacher training colleges were also involved in order to bring out viewpoints from teacher training education. The analysis followed the analytic coding technics that helped build up the six categories of this study by contrasting literatures to the findings.
The results confirmed a large number of earlier results, divided to six categories: school policy, implementation, and administration on the school level, access to ICT, leadership and management, school culture, and teacher training. There is a digital divide between the private and public schools. A number of new factors were also pinpointed: teachers' lack of awareness of government policies and documentation on several levels, lack of pedagogical readiness for e-learning and blended learning, and cultural concerns. Concerning what should come first, there was a chicken-and-egg-problem: it makes little sense to invest in rapidly aging ICT infrastructure and facilities if there is no human capacity to make use of those investments, and it makes little sense to invest in human capacity if there is no technological infrastructure to put quickly aging technical know-how into immediate use. Despite the shortage of the expected support, teachers, did not hesitate to put own effort to achieve their ICT dreams in the classroom by training each other, setting up some guideline for effective use of the few school ICTs; indeed, they want ICTs on daily basis. To bridge the gap, it is now important to focus on the quality of the ICTs and on the classroom activities-the best place for achieving the educational goals.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 73 p.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Educational technology, ICT management, Tanzania, Teacher education, Classroom Activities, Teachers ‘expectation and experiences, Culture.
Computer and Information Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-177914OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-177914DiVA: diva2:874957