On the interactions in cellulose systems: surface forces and adsorption
2000 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
In this thesis the interactions in cellulose systems havebeen studied with emphasis on surface forces and adsorptionphenomenon. The study was limited to surfaces and polymers ofinterest for papermaking. During papermaking both therunability of the paper machine as well as the properties ofthe final paper will depend on the molecular interactionsbetween the components present in the suspension. The objectiveof this work was to gain a better understanding of theseinteraction forces and how they are affected by solutionconditions like pH and electrolyte concentration. The maintechniques employed for this purpose were direct surface forcemeasurements using both the interferometric surface forceapparatus (SFA) and the atomic force microscopy (AFM)colloidal-probe technique. In addition, both electronspectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and AFM imaging wereused for surface characterisation and to study adsorptionbehaviour. Since a smooth and transparent surface is needed forsurface force studies using SFA, Langmuir-Blodgett films ofcellulose were employed.
The interactions between cellulose surfacesand xylansurfaces were studied. Cellulose is the main constituent of thewood fibre. In close association with cellulose in the cellwall are the hemicelluloses, xylan being a commonhemicellulose. Steric forces were found to dominate theinteractions between these substances in aqueous solutions.Still factors like charge density, solution pH and electrolyteconcentration were important. The adhesion between cellulosesurfaces in air depended on the contact area. The effect of acationic polyelectrolyte on the forces between cellulosesurfaces and between cellulose and mineral surfaces wasinvestigated to obtain a better understanding of the effects ofcationic retention and strength additives. In the presence of acationic polyelectrolyte the forces at large distances weredominated by double-layer repulsion. Bridging attraction was insome cases observed, but the presence and magnitude of thisforce was dependent on the properties of the substratesurface.
Lignin on the fibre surface affects brightness, swelling andstrength of paper. In addition, dissolved lignin interfereswith added polymers during papermaking. For this reason theadsorption of lignin on cellulose fibre surfaces was explored.The adsorption of lignin was influenced by the concentration oflignin in solution and by the electrolyte composition of thesolution. The retention of lignin was affected by the presenceof a cationic polyelectrolyte and particularly by how thepolyelectrolyte was added. The AFM imaging revealed thestructure of the adsorbed lignin, which varied with the way ofadding the polyelectrolyte, and gave an idea about theadsorption mechanism. The effect of lignin on strengthproperties of paper sheets was also evaluated.
Keywords: cellulose, hemicellulose, xylan, lignin, surfaceforces, adsorption, polyelectrolyte, SFA, AFM, ESCA,Langmuir-Blodgett films, chitosan, steric forces,bridging,adhesion
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kemi , 2000. , 63 p.
Trita-YTK, ISSN 1650-0490 ; 0001
cellulose, hemicellulose, xylan, lignin, surface forces, adsorption, polyelectrolyte, SFA, AFM, ESCA, Langmuir-Blodgett films, chitosan, steric forces, bridging, adhesion
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3017ISBN: 91-7170-622-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-3017DiVA: diva2:8764
NR 201408052000-10-042000-10-04Bibliographically approved