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The complexity and variability of individuals' activity-travel patterns in Indonesia
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8812-5032
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Considering an individual’s day-to-day variability of activity-travel patterns will provide a more complete description of how an individual behaves to adapt the changing constraints and resources on different days. Without this day-to-day variability understanding, the individual’s behaviour would not be fully grasped and any suggested policy, planning and development would not completely achieve their desired objectives. The day-to-day behaviour is a subject to an interaction between individual’s needs and time-space constraints. The availability of ‘external’ resources (e.g., disposable income, built environment accessibility, and access to different travel mode/s) gives more opportunities for some individuals to participate in certain activities and/or trips than others. The constraints do not only consider budget and time constraints, but also include how an individual associates with other individuals and materials, and complies with any given authorities’ rules and regulations. The needs-constraints interaction also unveils some endogeneities which may not be captured by microeconomic and attitude theories. Failing to understand these interactions will underestimate the individual’s complex decision making process for performing certain behaviour.

The constraints are not solely about physical constraints and instrumental factors, such as travel mode availability, time and cost. It is also influenced by individual’s non-instrumental variables, such as motivation, volition and habits. Currently there is a lack of knowledge how these non-instrumental variables are interacting and influencing the constraints to shape the individual’s travel behaviour. The implementation of certain activity-travel policy which only focuses in giving more opportunities to an individual within time and space resources without considering an individual’s attitude and/or habit may not be well accepted and followed by member of public. Moreover, the integration also reveals how an individual puts different priority on different potential activities based on the how an individual allocates/does not allocate time in engaging certain activities when having strong commitment and intention. In addition, including an individual’s health condition in the analysis may help in coordinating certain public health related policy with activity-travel policy.

This thesis includes six papers which investigated the factors described above. The first three papers investigated how activity participation and built environment variables which can represent individuals’ constraints explain the day-to-day variability of individuals’ behaviours. Furthermore, the fourth and fifth paper explored the interaction between individuals’ time-use and activity participation, subjective characteristics and health factors. Lastly, the sixth paper examined how the time-space constraints and health condition explain the degree of variability in individuals’ multi-facet and multi-dimensional activity-travel patterns using sequential alignment method.  

Abstract [sv]

Genom att ta hänsyn till den dagliga variationen i en individs aktivitets- och resemönster erhålls en mer komplett bild av hur denna beter sig för att anpassa sig till ändrade begränsningar och resurser under olika dagar. Utan förståelse för denna dagliga variation kan inte individens beteende helt förstås och de föreslagna policyåtgärderna, planering eller utveckling skulle inte helt uppnå sina önskade mål. Det dagliga beteendet är föremål för en interaktion mellan å ena sidan individens behov och å andra sidan begränsningar i tid och rum. Tillgång till ”externa” resurser (exempelvis disponibel inkomst eller tillgång till olika färdmedel) påverkar möjligheterna för individer att delta i aktiviteter och/eller resor. Begränsningarna gäller inte bara monetär budget eller tid, utan inkluderar även exempelvis fysisk miljö, regler och förordningar samt hur en individ kan associera med andra individer. Växelverkan mellan behov och begränsningar belyser och klargör även endogenitet som inte självklart kan fångas av mikroekonomiska och attitydteorier. Att inte ta hänsyn till dessa interaktioner kan vara att underskatta individens komplexa beslutfattandeprocess.

Tid- och rumsbegränsningarna handlar uteslutande om fysiska begränsningar och instrumentella faktorer, såsom färdmedelstillgänglighet, färdtid och färdkostnad. Individens beteende påverkas även av enskilda icke-instrumentella variabler, såsom motivation, vilja och vanor. Vi har idag bristande kunskap om hur dessa icke-instrumentella variabler interagerar med och påverkar begränsningar för att forma individens resebeteende. Genomförandet av viss aktivitets- och resepolicyåtgärder som bara fokuserar på att ge fler möjligheter till en individ inom tid- och rumsresurser, utan att också ta hänsyn individens attityder och/eller vana, kan försvåra allmänhetens acceptans.  Vidare, genom att inkludera en persons hälsotillstånd i analysen kan vi få ökade insikter hur vi kan samordna hälsorelaterade policyåtgärder med aktivitets- och resepolicyåtgärder.

Denna avhandling innehåller sex artiklar som undersöker de faktorer som beskrivs ovan. De tre första artiklarna undersöker dels hur begränsningarna enligt ovan förklarar den dagliga variationen av en individs aktivitetsmönster och aktivitetsrum, dels samspelet mellan en aktivitets varaktighet, den erforderliga restiden och aktivitetsrummet.

De fjärde och femte artiklarna undersöker samspelet mellan individens tid- och rumsbegränsningar, subjektiva egenskaper och hälsobegränsningar. Slutligen, i den sjätte artikeln undersöks med hjälp av en metod för sekventiell gruppering (sequential alignment) hur tidsbegränsning, rumsbegränsning och hälsotillståndet förklarar variationen i individers mångfacetterade och flerdimensionella aktivitets- och resemönster.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , xi, 24 p.
Series
TRITA-TSC-PHD, 16:001
Keyword [en]
day-to-day variability, needs-constraints interaction, non-instrumental variables, health condition
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-178062ISBN: 978-91-87353-81-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-178062DiVA: diva2:876744
Public defence
2016-01-22, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151210

Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-04 Last updated: 2015-12-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Day-to-day variability in travellers' activity-travel patterns in the Jakarta metropolitan area
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Day-to-day variability in travellers' activity-travel patterns in the Jakarta metropolitan area
2016 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 43, no 4, 601-621 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using four consecutive days of SITRAMP 2004 data from the Jakarta metropolitan area (JMA), Indonesia, this study examines the interactions between individuals’ activity-travel parameters, given the variability in their daily constraints, resources, land use and road network conditions. While there have been a significant number of studies into day-to-day variability in travel behaviour in developed countries, this issue is rarely examined in developing countries. The results show that some activity-travel parameter interactions are similar to those produced by travellers from developed countries, while others differ. Household and individual characteristics are the most significant variables influencing the interactions between activity-travel parameters. Different groups of travellers exhibit different trade-off mechanisms. Further analyses of the stability of activity-travel patterns across different days are also provided. Daily commuting time and regular work and study commitments heavily shape workers’ and students’ flexibility in arranging their travel time and out-of-home time budget, leading to more stable daily activity-travel patterns than non-workers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2016
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179119 (URN)10.1007/s11116-015-9591-4 (DOI)000379028700002 ()2-s2.0-84925250842 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 201512

Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
2. Day-to-day interpersonal and intrapersonal variability of individuals' activity spaces in a developing country
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Day-to-day interpersonal and intrapersonal variability of individuals' activity spaces in a developing country
2014 (English)In: Environment and Planning, B: Planning and Design, ISSN 0265-8135, E-ISSN 1472-3417, Vol. 41, no 6, 1063-1076 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using the SITRAMP dataset, which was collected in the Jakarta metropolitan area, Indonesia, over four consecutive days, this study examines day-to-day variability of individuals' activity spaces. The impact of individual heterogeneity and variability of transport network conditions on day-to-day variability of activity spaces is also investigated. Results show that individuals' activity spaces vary from day to day and between different individuals. The activity space of other household members was found to be the most significant factor influencing an individual's activity space. Against the common belief in developing countries that better traffic conditions make individuals travel farther, results show that higher road-network travel speed and better road surface conditions within the home zones actually encourage individuals to visit a more compact set of activity locations and/or visit fewer activity locations. Smoother road surface conditions and higher travel speeds within home zones also bring the centroid of activity locations closer to individuals' home locations. Furthermore, day-to-day variability analysis of individual activity spaces showed that weekday activity spaces are more compact than those at weekends. Moreover, it was found that students' activity spaces show most variability, while those of nonworkers have the lowest variability.

Keyword
activity space, day-to-day variability, variability of transport network conditions, Jakarta Metropolitan Area
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158309 (URN)10.1068/b130067p (DOI)000345855000009 ()2-s2.0-84919382446 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150107

Available from: 2015-01-07 Created: 2015-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Relationships among discretionary activity duration, travel time spent and activity space indices in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area, Indonesia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationships among discretionary activity duration, travel time spent and activity space indices in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area, Indonesia
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Economics and Business Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179116 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2015-12-10Bibliographically approved
4. Collecting a multi-dimensional three-weeks household time-use and activity diary in the Bandung Metropolitan Area, Indonesia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collecting a multi-dimensional three-weeks household time-use and activity diary in the Bandung Metropolitan Area, Indonesia
2015 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 80, 231-246 p., 1641Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a comprehensive panel data collection and analysis at household level, including detailed travel behaviour variables and comprehensive in-home and out-of-home activities, individual cognitive habits and affective behaviours, the rate of physical activity, as well as health related quality of life (QoL) information in the Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA) of Indonesia. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to collect an individual's activity diary over an extended period as it captures the multi-tasking activities and multidisciplinary factors that underlie individual activity-travel patterns in a developing country. Preliminary analyses of the collected data indicate that different beliefs, anticipated emotions, support and attachment to motorised modes significantly correlate with different groups of occupation, gender, age, activity participation, multi-tasking activities, and physical health, but not with different social and mental health. This finding highlights the reason why implementing car reduction policies in Indonesia, without breaking or changing the individual's habits and influencing his/her attitudes have not been fruitful. The results also show that endorsing more physical activities may result in a significant reduction in the individual's motorised mode use, whilst individuals who demonstrate a tendency to use their spare time on social activities tend to have better social health conditions. Furthermore, undertaking multi-tasking out-of-home discretionary activities positively correlates with better physical health. All these highlight the importance of properly understanding and analysing the complex mechanisms that underlie these fundamental factors that shape individual daily activity-travel patterns in developing countries. This type of multidisciplinary approach is needed to design better transport policies that will not only promote better transport conditions, but also a healthier society with a better quality of life.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
Bandung Metropolitan Area (Indonesia), Health, Long term survey, Psychological factors, Time use and activity diary, Travel behaviour, Developing countries, Motor transportation, Multitasking, Transportation, Activity-travel patterns, Daily activity-travel patterns, Health-related quality of lives, Indonesia, Multi-disciplinary approach, Time use, developing world, household structure, metropolitan area, psychology, quality of life, transportation policy, travel behavior, urban transport, Bandung, West Java
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176231 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2015.08.001 (DOI)000362607200016 ()2-s2.0-84940644787 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151116

Available from: 2015-11-16 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
5. On complexity and variability of individuals’ day-to-day discretionary activities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On complexity and variability of individuals’ day-to-day discretionary activities
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Economics and Business Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179117 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2015-12-10Bibliographically approved
6. Analysing the complexity of day-to-day individuals’ activity-travel pattern using Multi-dimensional Sequence Alignment Method: A case study in Bandung Metropolitan Area, Indonesia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysing the complexity of day-to-day individuals’ activity-travel pattern using Multi-dimensional Sequence Alignment Method: A case study in Bandung Metropolitan Area, Indonesia
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Economics and Business Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179118 (URN)
Note

QS 2015

Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2015-12-10Bibliographically approved

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