Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
CDM’s influence on technology transfers: A study of the implemented clean development mechanism projects in China
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9129-7265
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
2015 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 158, p. 355-365Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Technology transfers through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol is one of the most important catalysts in the cooperation between developed (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries for climate change mitigation. With the large-scale implementation of CDM projects in recent years, it is important to timely and comprehensively analyze the effectiveness of technology transfers in these implemented projects on the level of individual countries. In this context, China is of particular significance as it is the biggest host country of CDM projects in the world; 50% of total CDM projects implemented from 2007 to 2012 have issued Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) to 60% of all of the CDM projects. In this study, we evaluated the performance of technology transfers in an exclusive database of 754 CDM projects hosted by China between 2007 and 2012 with issued CERs since CERs were first issued in China. In addition, we developed a logistic regression approach using 11-variables that include a series of extended technology transfer-based indicators from the perspectives of project design, economic level, and technology capability that have not been studied in detail in the past. The results show that technology transfers are more likely to occur in large-sized projects with higher CER incomes, in projects with international participants, and in projects involving types such as HFC-23 reduction, fuel substitute, and N<inf>2</inf>O decomposition, in comparison to projects involving renewable energy. We observed that over 90% of the technology transfer projects only include importation of equipment or training to China. In our findings of the regression results, it shows that technology transfers occurred more often in regions with lower technology capabilities, less energy consumption, and a lower GDP growth rate. Supported by high local technology capability and the governmental strategy with independent innovation, the advantages of introducing technology from other countries are offset by local technology diffusion. In a market view, financial incentives hinder CDM host parties from introducing new equipment or trainings for the high marginal cost, unless the high marginal cost of technology transfer can be offset by a large CDM with a high CER income. Technology transfer is more income-driven than sustainability-driven at the present stage in China. In our analysis, the drive out effect between HFC-23 and renewable projects in CDM suggests China government to publish more effective incentives to attract more sustainable types of CDM projects with a higher level of technology innovation. The results are also discussed in the context of policy issues, which can be helpful for the decision makers when formulating future sustainable strategic plans and policy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2015. Vol. 158, p. 355-365
National Category
History of Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174580DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.06.072ISI: 000364880800030Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84940500134OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-174580DiVA, id: diva2:877641
Note

QC 20151207

Available from: 2015-12-07 Created: 2015-10-07 Last updated: 2018-10-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sustainable Business Innovation of Photovoltaic Water Pumping Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable Business Innovation of Photovoltaic Water Pumping Systems
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The development of renewable energy technology provides an effective approach to replace fossil fuels for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Technological innovation and transfer are the main driving forces in promoting renewable energy usage, because of the better efficiency and economic payback under an emission reduction target. With three of the mechanisms of emission trading originating from the Kyoto Protocol, the most wildly accepted and important mechanism between developed and developing countries is the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The CDM has been implemented contributing the most of the trading carbon credits. In this study, by extracting and building an exclusive database of issued Chinese CDM projects, a modified multivariable logistic regression model for technology transfer’s correlation test with 11 extended indicators was investigated for the first time. Renewable energy projects were analyzed with certified emission reduction (CER) sizes, economic development, and geographic scopes.In addition, technological innovation should also be enhanced with new business developments to demonstrate and scale up technologies for better economic and environmental performances. This doctoral thesis studied photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) technology as a technological solution for integration with the new business model for development and co-benefits. The integration of PVWP with water saving irrigation techniques and sustainable management of water resources, leads to technical innovations, economic benefits, and climate benefits. Field measurements at a pilot PVWP system in Inner Mongolia were conducted with detailed economic performance analyses. Different scenarios for PVWP systems considering variant market incentives were proposed with internal rate of return (IRR), and discounted payback period analyses to develop a new business model approach for implementing PVWP systems with multi-value propositions. The environmental externalities were successfully addressed by evaluating the CO2 emission reduction credits. The economic assessment of feasible and optimal production processes for implementing PVWP systems in dairy milk production was conducted with self-supplied energy and forage assumptions. In comparison with other financing mechanisms, discrete choice model analyses were employed with interviews and costumer behavior surveys to explore the willingness to purchase through crowd funding mechanisms in financing integrated PVWP systems.The results showed that emission reduction mechanisms, such as CDM, have promoted the renewable energy development in China with the national incentives at an entrance level. Yet, the limited sizes and lower income from CERs of renewable energy projects than other projects, required renewable energy projects to develop more advanced technological innovations and business model innovations.  The PVWP systems represent the better technical and economic solutions under a feasible innovated business model in comparison with traditional photovoltaic (PV) systems and current PV business models. The dairy farms with integrated PVWP systems and self-sufficient feeds could improve their investment performance through extra energy saving and CO2 emission reductions. The semi-structured interviews and customer surveys’ results showed that customers can tolerate high prices, and are willing to crowd-fund nutritious and secure cow milk with environmental compensation characters. The results from the PVWP technology integration in China as a specific PV application study can be further applied for the business model of innovation of renewable energy systems in other regions of the world under emission reduction targets leading to economic and environmental benefits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 59
Series
TRITA-CBH-FOU ; 2018:47
Keywords
PV water pumping, Economic assessment, Ecological benefits, Business model innovation, Case study
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-235816 (URN)978-91-7729-972-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-11-01, Kollegiesalen, KTH Campus, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20181010

Available from: 2018-10-11 Created: 2018-10-10 Last updated: 2018-10-11Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Other links

Publisher's full textScopus

Authority records BETA

Zhang, Cheng

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Zhang, ChengYan, Jinyue
By organisation
Energy Processes
In the same journal
Applied Energy
History of Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 30 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf