1D Turbine Design Tool Validation and Loss Model Comparison: Performance Prediction of a 1-stage Turbine at Different Pressure Ratios
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
This work concerns the validation of two 1D Turbine Design Tools, AXIAL by Concepts NREC and TML by GKN Aerospace, and is purely computational. By using the KTH Test Turbine as a reference frame, these two software programs were set up to simulate its performance, and the results consequently validated against existing experimental data from the turbine. The main objective of this work is to investigate the performance prediction abilities of the 1D Design Tools for a variety of turbine parameters such as efficiency, mass flow, power output and degree of reaction, and study the accuracy of these predictions under given boundary conditions, namely turbine stage inlet pressure, temperature and pressure ratio. The main focus of the simulation was to evaluate the impact of the choice of loss model in the 1D Software Tools for estimation of losses. Thus, in order to gain a better understanding of differences and similarities among the scope of available loss models, as well as deviation models, a literature study was performed. Additionally, in order to extend the knowledge of the detailed performance prediction characteristics of these software tools in regard to the loss model implemented, the individual loss coefficients (profile, secondary, trailing edge, tip clearance and incidence) were studied and analysed. The impact of chosen pressure ratio on the 1D simulation accuracy was also investigated.
The software tool used and the loss model selected were both found to be of great significance to the accuracy of the simulated performance. The pressure ratio (PR) used for simulation also proved to be of great significance, with simulations performed at an elevated PR providing considerably more accurate results than at the design PR, suggesting that the majority of loss models are more accurate when estimating with higher PR.
The KTH Test Turbine stage validated in this work featured a number of special geometrical features of inconvenient nature for 1D simulations. In order to account for this, a number of correction coefficients were developed and implemented and their individual effect on the simulated performance studied. Another special feature of the turbine stage studied was the lean angle of the stator, which impact on the 1D simulations was also investigated. Additionally, a number of different user selectable parameters in AXIAL and their impact on the simulations were investigated. The geometry correction coefficients and stator lean angle were found to be of negligible impact to the overall estimated performance, while the user selectable parameters in AXIAL proved to be of relatively big influence on the simulated results.
Lastly, using the TML software tool, the concept of stator-rotor disc cavity flow known as 'purge flow' was simulated and validated against reference data. Purge flow serves to inhibit the inflow of hot air from the main annulus to the inner hub and simultaneously cool the rotor blades. The TML software was found to overestimate the losses associated with the use of purge flow, although providing relatively coherent trends for parameters such as efficiency, mass flow and power, suggesting that a correction coefficient applied to the overall losses from purge flow could potentially provide better overall accuracy in the simulations.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 173 p.
gas turbine, 1D design tool, validation, loss models, performance prediction, pressure ratio, purge flow
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-178722OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-178722DiVA: diva2:878059
Master of Science in Engineering - Mechanical Engineering
2015-09-11, Learning Theater (M235), Brinellvägen 68, Stockholm, 11:00 (English)
Dahlqvist, Johan, PhD Candidate
Laumert, Björn, Dr
ProjectsSwedish TURBOPOWER Research Program