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Protein-Based Adhesives for Particleboards
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. AkzoNobel, Casco Adhesives, Sweden.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main objective of this study was to elucidate the possibilities to use wheat gluten (WG) as a binder for particleboards, as well as soy protein isolate (SPI). The focus was on the effect of the adhesive formulation and the processing conditions, while the press parameters were kept constant. Some aspects of the dispersion and the preparation of the dispersions that were investigated are: the dispersing agent (sodium hydroxide 0.1 M or citric acid 0.05 M), the time (1, 3 or 5h) to prepare the dispersion, the temperature (room temperature, 50 or 80°C) during the preparation of the dispersions and the effect of storing (1, 2.5 or 4 days) the dispersions before application. Additionally, utilization of cross-linker polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAAE) and trimethylolpropane triacetoacetate (AATMP) were evaluated. Furthermore, the utilization of green particles versus dried particles was examined. The concentration (12, 16, 20 or 24%) of WG dispersion and the process for applying it to the particles were studied. Two application methods were evaluated, in application method 1 (appl. 1) all the dispersion was added to the particles in one step before the particles were dried. When application method 2 (appl. 2) was employed the dispersion was added in two steps, some of the dispersion was added before the drying and some after the drying. The considered board properties were internal bond (IB), thickness swelling (TS) and water absorption (ABS). The wetting, penetration and film formation of the WG dispersions on the wood was investigated employing different microscopy techniques. For the WG dispersions it looks as if a lower temperature is preferable for the preparation of the dispersion and that the time to prepare the dispersion is of no importance. Furthermore, storing the dispersions for more than one day before it was used as an adhesive for particleboards (PB) resulted in poorer boards. Using the right cross-linker, such as PAAE enhances the binding abilities of WG. According to this study it is beneficial to use dried particles instead of green particles. Additionally, the results show that the interaction between the concentration of WG dispersion and how it is applied is a significant factor, considering the IB value. However, in general the two step process (appl. 2) is preferable. The microscopy study reveals that this can be explained by the balance between wetting, penetration, and flow of the dispersion on the wood. The two step application results in less over-penetration when the viscosity of the dispersion is low.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , p. 64
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2016:2
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-178939ISBN: 978-91-7595-792-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-178939DiVA, id: diva2:878500
Public defence
2016-01-15, K1, Teknikringen 56, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151209

Available from: 2015-12-09 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2015-12-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Protein-based adhesives for particleboards
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protein-based adhesives for particleboards
2010 (English)In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 275-283Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to elucidate the possibilities of using soy protein isolate (SPI) and wheat gluten (WG) as binders for particleboards. One-layer particleboards were produced in laboratory scale. Parameters regarding the formulation of the adhesive and the gluing process were investigated, while the press parameters were kept constant. The considered factors were: the use of protein as a dispersion and/or as a dry protein powder, the temperature during the preparation of the dispersion, the time for preparing the dispersion, the storage time of dispersion prior to gluing, and the use of dried core particles or green particles. The board properties evaluated were: internal bond (IB), thickness swelling (TS) and water absorption (ABS). The results were statistically evaluated and SIMCA-P+ software was employed as a multivariate analyzing tool. The results show that protein adhesives can work as adhesive for particleboard. The results also reveal that it is preferable to use the dispersion as a binder rather than the dry protein. Furthermore, in the case of the SPI, the time for preparing the dispersion is a significant parameter: it appears that longer dispersion time results in enhanced board properties. According to the results, the temperature during the preparation does not seem to have any impact on the gluing properties of the SPI dispersions. On the other hand, in the case of WG dispersions, the temperature has an impact on the properties of the adhesive, favouring lower temperature, while the time is insignificant. Additionally, if the dispersion has been stored for more than 1 day before it is used, it results in boards with poorer mechanical and water resistance properties. The utilization of the green chips, instead of the dried core particles, is clearly a disadvantage, especially regarding the water resistance of the particleboards. It appears that SPI is superior to WG when it comes to the water resistance as well as the mechanical properties of the boards. However, it is not possible to compare these two proteins explicitly, since SPI contains a higher percentage of protein. Additionally, WG contains more starch, which is known to give poorer water resistance properties.

Keywords
Wheat gluten, Soy protein isolate, Adhesive, Particleboard, Protein, Wood adhesive
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27082 (URN)10.1016/j.indcrop.2010.05.001 (DOI)000283962300014 ()2-s2.0-77957223853 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101210Available from: 2010-12-10 Created: 2010-12-06 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
2. Protein-based adhesives for particleboards - effect of application process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protein-based adhesives for particleboards - effect of application process
2011 (English)In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 1509-1515Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main purpose of this study was to investigate wheat gluten (WG) dispersions as adhesives for particleboard. The effect of the dispersion concentration and two application methods were studied. When application method 1 was employed all the dispersion was added to the particles in one step, the particles were dried after the gluing. When using application method 2, the dispersion was added in two steps with drying of the glued chips between the first and the second addition of the dispersion. The amount of dry wheat gluten on dry particles was kept constant for all the experiments as was the pressing conditions. The performance of the wheat gluten dispersions were evaluated based on the following board properties: internal bond (IB), thickness swelling (TS) and water absorption (ABS). The experiments were conducted according to a factorial screening design and SIMCA-P+ was employed as a multivariate analyzing tool. The results reveal that application method 2 seems to be  beneficial. Furthermore, it appears as, regarding the IB of the boards, the preferable dispersion concentration depends on the employed application method. When application method 1 is used a higher concentration seems to be better, in contrast for application method 2 a lower concentration of the dispersion may be beneficial. The improved properties obtained using application method 2 is proposed to be due to a more optimal penetration of the dispersion into the wood particles.

 

Keywords
Wheat gluten, Adhesives, Particleboard, Wood adhesives, Protein, Protein-based adhesives
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33799 (URN)10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.05.009 (DOI)000294036100015 ()2-s2.0-79960467508 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-05-18 Created: 2011-05-18 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3. Wheat Gluten Fractions as Wood Adhesives-Glutenins Versus Gliadins
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wheat Gluten Fractions as Wood Adhesives-Glutenins Versus Gliadins
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 123, no 3, p. 1530-1538Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plant proteins, such as wheat gluten, constitute attractive raw materials for sustainable wood adhesives. In this study, alkaline water dispersions of the protein classes of wheat gluten, glutenin, and gliadin were used as adhesives to bond together wood substrates of beech. The aim of the study is to measure the tensile shear strength of the wood substrates to compare the adhesive performance of glutenin and gliadin and to investigate the influence of application method and penetration of the dispersions into the wood material. A sodium hydroxide solution (0.1M) was used as dispersing and denaturing agent. Dispersions with different protein concentrations and viscosities were used, employing wheat gluten dispersions as references. Two different application methods, a press temperature of 110 degrees C and a press time of 15 min, were employed. The tensile shear strength and water resistance of the wood substrates were compared, using a slightly modified version of the European Standard EN 204. The bond lines of the substrates were examined by optical microscopy to study the penetration and bond-line thickness. The results reveal that the adhesive properties of gliadin are inferior to that of both glutenin and wheat gluten, especially in terms of water resistance. However, the tensile shear strength and the water resistance of gliadin are significantly improved when over-penetration of the protein into the wood material is avoided, rendering the adhesive performance of gliadin equal to that of glutenin and wheat gluten.

Keywords
adhesives, mechanical properties, proteins, renewable resources, biopolymers
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-51267 (URN)10.1002/app.34312 (DOI)000296862700027 ()2-s2.0-80255126228 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20111212Available from: 2011-12-12 Created: 2011-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Wetting and film formation of wheat gluten dispersions applied to wood substrates as particle board adhesives
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wetting and film formation of wheat gluten dispersions applied to wood substrates as particle board adhesives
Show others...
2015 (English)In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 67, p. 476-482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The wetting, penetration, and film formation of wheat gluten dispersions on porous wood substrates have been studied using different microscopy techniques. The effect variation of wheat gluten concentration, processing temperatures, dispersion composition, and the application scheme has been studied. The results have been correlated to previously obtained results on the function of wheat gluten dispersions as adhesive binders for particle boards. The results show that the dispersions readily penetrate the porous wood substrate and that the key parameters for a successful gluing are the dispersion viscosity, concentration, and the application scheme.

Keywords
Adhesives, Wheat gluten, Plant protein, Film formation, Microscopy
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-171904 (URN)10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2014.11.034 (DOI)000357750900045 ()
Note

QC 20150812

Available from: 2015-08-12 Created: 2015-08-10 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved

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