In this thesis 9-12 % Cr steels, used for high-temperaturecomponents in fossil-fired power plants are considered. Thecreep strength of thees steels depend on their microstructurethat consists of a matrix of tempered lath martensite withdensely distributed precipitates. The mechanical properties arestrongly influenced by precipitates present in the matrix andthe more densely distributed they are the higher is thehardening effect. These particles nucleate, grow and coarsenduring use in power plants, leading to a degradation ofmechanical properties. In this thesis the nucleation andcoarsening behaviour of the precipitates in the Cr steels aresimulated by new models and the results are compared withtransmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of testedmaterials.
A model of the nucleation of MX, which mainly isvanadium-nitrides, is presented. MX precipitates are assumed tonucleate on dislocations during annealing. The model takes intoaccount the full multicomponent thermodynamical behaviour ofthe system as well as the strain energy caused by a puredilatoric strain and the shape of the nucleus. The calculationsyield a critical size and shape represented by an oblatespheroid with a radius of a few nanometers and a thickness ofan atomic layer. This is in agreement with TEM observations ofsupercritical particles.
A new coarsening model, which takes into account themulticomponent effects, is presented and it has been tested ondifferent systems to validate the model.
Four different carbides, Cr7C3, Mo6C, VC and NbC, in austenitic matrix as well asγ ' in ternary Ni-base super-alloy systems (Ni-Al-Mo)were compared with measurements from literature.
TiC-particles in austenitic stainless steel, ASTM 316Ti,were considered. The simulations were performed taking intoaccount iron and 7 alloying elements. The measurements wereperformed with TEM on samples that had been heat-treated at900° C.
MX and M23C6in a 9 % Cr steel were investigated with energyfiltering transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) andcompared with simulations. The used samples had been heattreated for various periods of time at 600 and 650° Cfor up to 26 000 h.
The agreement of the simulations with the experiments wasgood in all cases when reasonable values of the interfacialenergy, the only adjustable parameter, were chosen.
Coarsening simulations were also performed to investigatethe influence of changes in composition on the coarsening rate.For MX, in a 9 % Cr steel, the coarsening rate is almostindependent of the V/Nb ratio but highly dependent on theN-content. Also the effect on the coarsening rate for M23C6by adding Co to a Cr steel was investigated bysimulation. Co is known to increase the resistance totempering. The results show that a final average radius of thecarbides after 30 000 h at 600° C decreases with 30 % witha Co addition of 10 mass %.
Keywords:Cr steels, nucleation, coarsening, model,DICTRA, precipitates, carbides, carbo-nitrides, MX, VN, M23C6, TiC, TEM, EFTEM, Curie-temperature
Stockholm: Materialvetenskap , 2000. , 20 p.
Cr-steels, nucleation, coarsening, model, DICTRA, precipitates, carbides, carbo-nitrides, MX, VN, M23C6, TiC, TEM, EFTEM, Curie-temperature