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Zero-load Predictive Model for Performance Analysis in Deflection Routing NoCs
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
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2015 (English)In: Microprocessors and microsystems, ISSN 0141-9331, E-ISSN 1872-9436, Vol. 39, no 8, 634-647 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We study a static model for 2-D and 3-D networks that accurately represents the average distance travelled by packets under deflection routing, which is a specific form of adaptive routing. The model captures static properties of the network topology and the spatial distribution of traffic, but does not take into account traffic loading and congestion. Even though this static model cannot accurately predict packet latency under high load, we contend that it is a perfect predictor of deflection routing networks’ relative performance under any load condition below saturation, and thus always correctly predicts the optimum network configuration. This is verified through cycle-accurate simulations of congested and uncongested networks with fully adaptive, deflection routing for regular traffic patterns such as uniform random, localised, bursty, and others, as well as irregular patterns in both regular and irregular networks. As the networks with minimal average distance perform best even under high traffic load, the average distance model establishes a robust relation between a static network property, average distance, and network performance under load, providing new insight into network behaviour and an opportunity to identify the optimal network configuration without time-consuming simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2015. Vol. 39, no 8, 634-647 p.
Keyword [en]
Alpha-model, Average distance, B-Model, NoC, Zero-load predictive model
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179688DOI: 10.1016/j.micpro.2015.09.002ISI: 000366879500004ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84943171466OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-179688DiVA: diva2:885735
Note

QC 20151221. QC 20160121

Available from: 2015-12-21 Created: 2015-12-21 Last updated: 2016-01-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Exploring the Scalability and Performance of Networks-on-Chip with Deflection Routing in 3D Many-core Architecture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the Scalability and Performance of Networks-on-Chip with Deflection Routing in 3D Many-core Architecture
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Three-Dimensional (3D) integration of circuits based on die and wafer stacking using through-silicon-via is a critical technology in enabling "more-than-Moore", i.e. functional integration of devices beyond pure scaling ("more Moore"). In particular, the scaling from multi-core to many-core architecture is an excellent candidate for such integration. 3D systems design follows is a challenging and a complex design process involving integration of heterogeneous technologies. It is also expensive to prototype because the 3D industrial ecosystem is not yet complete and ready for low-cost mass production. Networks-on-Chip (NoCs) efficiently facilitates the communication of massively integrated cores on 3D many-core architecture. In this thesis scalability and performance issues of NoCs are explored in terms of architecture, organization and functionality of many-core systems.

First, we evaluate on-chip network performance in massively integrated many-core architecture when network size grows. We propose link and channel models to analyze the network traffic and hence the performance. We develop a NoC simulation framework to evaluate the performance of a deflection routing network as the architecture scales up to 1000 cores. We propose and perform comparative analysis of 3D processor-memory model configurations in scalable many-core architectures.

Second, we investigate how the deflection routing NoCs can be designed to maximize the benefit of the fast TSVs through clock pumping techniques. We propose multi-rate models for inter-layer communication. We quantify the performance benefit through cycle-accurate simulations for various configurations of 3D architectures.

Finally, the complexity of massively integrated many-core architecture by itself brings a multitude of design challenges such as high-cost of prototyping, increasing complexity of the technology, irregularity of the communication network, and lack of reliable simulation models. We formulate a zero-load average distance model that accurately predicts the performance of deflection routing networks in the absence of data flow by capturing the average distance of a packet with spatial and temporal probability distributions of traffic.

The thesis research goals are to explore the design space of vertical integration for many-core applications, and to provide solutions to 3D technology challenges through architectural innovations. We believe the research findings presented in the thesis work contribute in addressing few of the many challenges to the field of combined research in many-core architectural design and 3D integration technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. xviii, 80 p.
Series
, TRITA-ICT, 2015:29
Keyword
Alpha-model, Average distance, B-Model, NoC, Zero-load predictive model, deflection routing, q-routing
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179694 (URN)978-91-7595-803-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-01-20, Hall C, Electrum, Isafjordsgatan 26, 16440, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20151221

Available from: 2015-12-21 Created: 2015-12-21 Last updated: 2015-12-21Bibliographically approved

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