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ZnO-PLLA Nanofiber Nanocomposite for Continuous Flow Mode Purification of Water from Cr(VI)
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Environmental and Public health, ISSN 1687-9805, E-ISSN 1687-9813, Vol. 2015, 687094Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanomaterials of ZnO-PLLA nanofibers have been used for the adsorption of Cr(VI) as a prime step for the purification of water.The fabrication and application of the flexible ZnO-PLLA nanofiber nanocomposite as functional materials in this well-developedarchitecture have been achieved by growing ZnO nanorod arrays by chemical bath deposition on synthesized electrospun poly-Llactidenanofibers. The nanocomposite material has been tested for the removal and regeneration of Cr(IV) in aqueous solutionunder a “continuous flow mode” by studying the effects of pH, contact time, and desorption steps.Theadsorption of Cr(VI) speciesin solution was greatly dependent upon pH. SEM micrographs confirmed the successful fabrication of the ZnO-PLLA nanofibernanocomposite.Theadsorption and desorption of Cr(VI) species were more likely due to the electrostatic interaction between ZnOand Cr(VI) ions as a function of pH.The adsorption and desorption experiments utilizing the ZnO-PLLAnanofiber nanocompositehave appeared to be an effective nanocomposite in the removal and regeneration of Cr(VI) species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2015. Vol. 2015, 687094
Keyword [en]
Chromium, nanofibers, water purification
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179870DOI: 10.1155/2015/687094PubMedID: 26681961Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84949238526OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-179870DiVA: diva2:890674
Note

QC 20160111

Available from: 2016-01-04 Created: 2016-01-04 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Application of Nanomaterials for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium and their Biological Implications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of Nanomaterials for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium and their Biological Implications
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) stated that chromium in the form of Cr(VI) has been deemed to be a class-A human carcinogen. It has been a major contaminant associated with wastewater. Moreover, the existence of heavy metals in aquatic systems is a critical concern for the environment as well as industries that manufacture or consume these particular elements. In order to remove these particular toxic metals, several well-known conventional methods including ion-exchange, filtration and adsorption are used. Amongst these methods, adsorption offers significant advantages such as the low-cost materials, ease of operation and efficiency in comparison to the other conventional methods.

The aim of this work was to develop nanomaterials (particles and fibers) to address some critical issues for the treatment of heavy metals, especially chromium in aqueous systems. Furthermore, the use of nanomaterials and how they relate to nanoscale operations at the biological level has generated considerable concerns in spite of their novel properties.

The first part of this thesis deals with the synthesis and characterizations of Fe3O4, magnetite, as nanoparticles which were further coated with surfactants bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid, Cyanex-301, and 3-Mercaptopropionic acid with the active compound being the thiol (SH) groups, that will suffice as a viable material for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions. The proposed mechanism was the complexation between the thiol group on Cyanex-301 and 3-Mercaptopropionic acid, respectively. The effect of different parameters on the adsorption including contact time, initial and final Cr(VI) ion concentration and solution pH was investigated.

The second part of this thesis encompassed the fabrication of flexible nanocomposite materials, with a large surface area and architecture for the removal of Cr(VI) in batch and continuous flow mode. A technique known as electrospinning was used to produce the nanofibers. The flexible yet functional materials architecture has been achieved by growing ZnO nanorod arrays through chemical bath deposition on synthesized electrospun poly-L-lactide nanofibers. Moreover, polyacrylonitrile nanofibers (PAN) were synthesized and adapted by the addition of hydroxylamine hydrochloride to produce amidoxime polyacrylonitrile nanofibers (A-PAN). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to identify the morphologies and particle sizes whereas Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify either the presence or absence of functional groups for the formation of PAN and A-PAN nanofibers. The optimization of functionalized nanoadsorbents to adsorb Cr(VI) was also carried out to investigate the effect of experimental parameters: contact time, solution pH, initial, final and other metal ion concentration. Commercially manufactured pristine engineered (TiO2, ZnO and SiO2) nanoparticles and lab-made functionalized (Fe3O4 and CeO2) nanoparticles were studied while the powders were suspended in appropriate media by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) to identify their cytotoxicity effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. 76 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2016:4
Keyword
Nanomaterials, Chromium, Biology
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179871 (URN)978-91-7595-813-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-01-29, sal D2, Lindstedisvägen 5, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160111

Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-04 Last updated: 2016-01-11Bibliographically approved

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Kiros, Yohannes

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