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Risk, language and discourse
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This doctoral thesis analyses the concept of risk and how it functions as an organizing principle of discourse, paying close attention to actual linguistic practice.

          Article 1 analyses the concepts of risk, safety and security and their relations based on corpus data (the Corpus of Contemporary American English). Lexical, grammatical and semantic contexts of the nouns risk, safety and security, and the adjectives risky, safe and secure are analysed and compared. Similarities and differences are observed, suggesting partial synonymy between safety (safe) and security (secure) and semantic opposition to risk (risky). The findings both support and contrast theoretical assumptions about these concepts in the literature.

          Article 2 analyses the concepts of risk and danger and their relation based on corpus data (in this case the British National Corpus). Frame semantics is used to explore the assumptions of the sociologist Niklas Luhmann (and others) that the risk concept presupposes decision-making, while the concept of danger does not. Findings partly support and partly contradict this assumption.

          Article 3 analyses how newspapers represent risk and causality. Two theories are used: media framing and the philosopher John Mackie’s account of causality. A central finding of the study is that risks are “framed” with respect to causality in several ways (e.g. one and the same type of risk can be presented as resulting from various causes). Furthermore, newspaper reporting on risk and causality vary in complexity. In some articles, risks are presented without causal explanations, while in other articles, risks are presented as results from complex causal conditions. Considering newspaper reporting on an aggregated overall level, complex schemas of causal explanations emerge.

          Article 4 analyses how phenomena referred to by the term nano (e.g. nanotechnology, nanoparticles and nanorobots) are represented as risks in Swedish newspaper reporting. Theoretically, the relational theory of risk and frame semantics are used. Five main groups of nano-risks are identified based on the risk object of the article: (I) nanotechnology; (II) nanotechnology and its artefacts (e.g. nanoparticles and nanomaterials); (III) nanoparticles, without referring to nanotechnology; (IV) non-nanotechnological nanoparticles (e.g. arising from traffic); and (V) nanotechnology and nanorobots. Various patterns are explored within each group, concerning, for example, what is considered to be at stake in relation to these risk objects, and under what conditions. It is concluded that Swedish patterns of newspaper reporting on nano-risks follow international trends, influenced by scientific assessment, as well as science fiction.

          Article 5 analyses the construction and negotiation of risk in the Swedish controversy over the use of antibacterial silver in health care and consumer products (e.g. sports clothes and equipment). The controversy involves several actors: print and television news media, Government and parliament, governmental agencies, municipalities, non-government organisations, and companies. In the controversy, antibacterial silver is claimed to be a risk object that negatively affects health, the environment, and sewage treatment industry (objects at risk). In contrast, such claims are denied. Antibacterial silver is even associated with the benefit of mitigating risk objects (e.g. bacteria and micro-organisms) that threaten health and the environment (objects at risk). In other words, both sides of the controversy invoke health and the environment as objects at risk. Three strategies organising risk communication are identified: (i) representation of silver as a risk to health and the environment; (ii) denial of such representations; and (iii) benefit association, where silver is construed to mitigate risks to health and the environment.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen analyserar begreppet risk och hur detta begrepp strukturerar diskurs. Ett centralt intresse för analysen är faktisk språkanvändning.

          I den första artikeln analyseras de engelska begreppen risk, safety and security och deras relation. Analysen bygger på korpusdata (the Corpus of Contemporary American English). Lexikala och grammatiska kontexter för substantiven risk, safety och security och adjektiven risky, safe och secure analyseras och jämförs. Både likheter och skillnader identifieras vilka i stort bekräftar att safety (safe) och security (secure) är synonymer och i sin tur motsatser (antonymer) till risk (risky). Studien stödjer flera tidigare antaganden om dessa begrepp inom forskningslitteraturen, men motsäger andra.

          I den andra artikeln analyseras de engelska begreppen risk och danger och deras relation baserat på korpusdata (the British National Corpus). Ramsemantik (eng. frame semantics) används för att undersöka antagandet att begreppet risk förutsätter beslutsfattande, medan begreppet danger inte gör det. Studien stödjer delvis detta antagande, men visar också på problem med antagandet.

          I den tredje artikeln analyseras hur nyhetspress framställer risk och orsak-verkansamband (kausalitet). Två teorier används. För det första används teorin om medias ”inramning” av händelser (eng. media framing). För det andra används filosofiska perspektiv på kausala beskrivningar. En huvudsaklig slutsats är att risker framställs på många olika sätt med avseende på kausalitet. Exempelvis kan en och samma risk framställas som ett resultat av flera olika orsaker. Vidare framställer nyhetspress riskers kausalitet med olika grader av komplexitet. I vissa tidningsartiklar presenteras risker utan några kausala förklaringar. I andra tidningsartiklar presenteras risker som resultat av komplexa orsak-verkansamband. Om man betraktar nyhetsrapporteringen om risker på en övergripande nivå, så framträder en komplex bild av riskers orsakssamband.

          I den fjärde artikeln analyseras framställningar av fenomen som benämns med morfemet nano, exempelvis nanoteknologi, nanomaterial och nanorobotar. Frågan som besvaras är på vilket sätt sådana fenomen framställs som risker i svensk nyhetspress. Teoretiskt utgår studien från den relationella teorin om risk och ramsemantik. Baserat på vilka fenomen som framställs som riskobjekt (eller hot) i tidningsartiklar, identifieras fem grupper av nanorisker: (I) nanoteknologi, (II) nanoteknologi och dess produkter (t.ex. nanopartiklar och nanomaterial), (III) nanopartiklar (utan referens till nanoteknologi), (IV) nanopartiklar som inte är resultat av nanoteknologi (utan istället uppstår t.ex. i trafiken) och (V) nanoteknologi och nanorobotar. För varje grupp undersöks vidare mönster i framställningen av dessa risker, exempelvis, vad som beskrivs som hotat av dessa riskobjekt och under vilka förutsättningar. Studiens empiriska observationer stödjer tidigare forskning om hur nanorisker rapporteras i nyhetspress internationalt. Rapporteringen av nanorisker är influerad av vetenskapliga riskbedömningar, men också av science fiction.

          I den femte artikeln analyseras en kontrovers kring användningen av antibakteriellt silver inom sjukvården och i konsumentartiklar som exempelvis träningskläder och sportutrustning. Fokus för artikeln är hur risker uppfattas i den svenska debatten som inbegriper nyhetsmedia (press och TV), regering och riksdag, myndigheter, kommuner, intresseorganisationer och företag. Vissa aktörer menar att silver är ett riskobjekt som påverkar olika värden på ett negativt sätt, till exempel, folkhälsan, miljön, och avloppsreningsindustrin. Andra aktörer förnekar dessa påståenden. De menar till och med att silver har fördelar som att motverka risker som hotar folkhälsan och miljön. Med andra ord åberopar båda sidorna av kontroversen hälsa och miljö som värden viktiga att skydda. Slutligen identifieras tre strategier för riskkommunikation som tillämpas i kontroversen: (i) framställningen av silver som en miljö- och hälsorisk, (ii) förnekande av dessa påståenden, och (iii) nyttoassociationer där silver framställs som något som motverkar miljö- och hälsorisker.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , viii, 75 p.
Series
Theses in Risk and Safety from the Division of Philosophy at the Royal Institute of Technology, ISSN 1654-627X ; 11
Keyword [en]
risk, safety, concept, meaning, definiton, discourse, langauge, risk communication, corpus linguistics, content analysis, nanotechnology, nanoparticle
National Category
Communication Studies Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Philosophy General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Planning and Decision Analysis
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180310ISBN: 978-91-7595-840-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-180310DiVA: diva2:894163
Public defence
2016-02-24, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stokholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160127

Available from: 2016-01-27 Created: 2016-01-10 Last updated: 2016-01-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The Concepts of Risk, Safety, and Security: Applications in Everyday Language
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Concepts of Risk, Safety, and Security: Applications in Everyday Language
2016 (English)In: Risk Analysis, ISSN 0272-4332, E-ISSN 1539-6924, Vol. 36, no 2, 320-338 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concepts of risk, safety, and security have received substantial academic interest. Several assumptions exist about their nature and relation. Besides academic use, the words risk, safety, and security are frequent in ordinary language, for example, in media reporting. In this article, we analyze the concepts of risk, safety, and security, and their relation, based on empirical observation of their actual everyday use. The "behavioral profiles" of the nouns risk, safety, and security and the adjectives risky, safe, and secure are coded and compared regarding lexical and grammatical contexts. The main findings are: (1) the three nouns risk, safety, and security, and the two adjectives safe and secure, have widespread use in different senses, which will make any attempt to define them in a single unified manner extremely difficult; (2) the relationship between the central risk terms is complex and only partially confirms the distinctions commonly made between the terms in specialized terminology; (3) whereas most attempts to define risk in specialized terminology have taken the term to have a quantitative meaning, nonquantitative meanings dominate in everyday language, and numerical meanings are rare; and (4) the three adjectives safe, secure, and risky are frequently used in comparative form. This speaks against interpretations that would take them as absolute, all-or-nothing concepts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2016
Keyword
Concept analysis, Corpus linguistics, Everyday use, Risk, Safety, Security, Accident prevention, Computational linguistics, Natural language processing systems, Risk assessment, Risks, Terminology, All-or-nothing concept, Behavioral profiles, Everyday language, Ordinary languages, Safety engineering
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176184 (URN)10.1111/risa.12464 (DOI)000371239800010 ()2-s2.0-84959093742 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160407

Available from: 2015-11-25 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
2. The semantic distinction between ‘risk’ and ‘danger’: A linguistic analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The semantic distinction between ‘risk’ and ‘danger’: A linguistic analysis
2012 (English)In: Risk Analysis, ISSN 0272-4332, E-ISSN 1539-6924, Vol. 32, no 2, 281-293 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The analysis combines frame semantic and corpus linguistic approaches in analyzing the role of agency and decision making in the semantics of the words “risk” and “danger” (both nominal and verbal uses). In frame semantics, the meanings of “risk” and of related words, such as “danger,” are analyzed against the background of a specific cognitive-semantic structure (a frame) comprising frame elements such as Protagonist, Bad Outcome, Decision, Possession, and Source. Empirical data derive from the British National Corpus (100 million words). Results indicate both similarities and differences in use. First, both “risk” and “danger” are commonly used to represent situations having potential negative consequences as the result of agency. Second, “risk” and “danger,” especially their verbal uses (to risk, to endanger), differ in agent-victim structure, i.e., “risk” is used to express that a person affected by an ac- tion is also the agent of the action, while “endanger” is used to express that the one affected is not the agent. Third, “risk,” but not “danger,” tends to be used to represent rational and goal-directed action. The results therefore to some extent confirm the analysis of “risk” and “danger” suggested by German sociologist Niklas Luhmann. As a point of discussion, the present findings arguably have implications for risk communication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2012
Keyword
agency; corpus linguistics; danger; risk; semantics
National Category
Social Sciences General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180305 (URN)10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01668.x (DOI)000300668000012 ()21883332 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84857110100 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160113

Available from: 2016-01-10 Created: 2016-01-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
3. Risk and Causality in Newspaper Reporting
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk and Causality in Newspaper Reporting
2009 (English)In: Risk Analysis, ISSN 0272-4332, E-ISSN 1539-6924, Vol. 29, no 11, 1566-1577 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study addresses the textual representation of risk and causality in news media reporting. The analytical framework combines two theoretical perspectives: media frame analysis and the philosophy of causality. Empirical data derive from selected newspaper articles on risks in the Göta älv river valley in southwest Sweden from 1994 to 2007. News media content was coded and analyzed with respect to causal explanations of risk issues. At the level of individual articles, this study finds that the media provide simple causal explanations of risks such as water pollution, landslides, and flooding. Furthermore, these explanations are constructed, or framed, in various ways, the same risk being attributed to different causes in different articles. However, the study demonstrates that a fairly complex picture of risks in the media emerges when extensive material is analyzed systematically.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2009
Keyword
causality; framing; media; risk
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180306 (URN)10.1111/j.1539-6924.2009.01296.x (DOI)000271065300009 ()19765246 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-70350491266 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160127

Available from: 2016-01-10 Created: 2016-01-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
4. The representation of nano as a risk in Swedish news media coverage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The representation of nano as a risk in Swedish news media coverage
2013 (English)In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 16, no 3, 227-244 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Focusing on the role of language in categorization and on the broad conceptual fi eld centred on the morpheme nano, this study addresses the association between phenomena referred to by words having nano as a constituent and risk in Swedish newspaper reporting. The study raises the question of how nano- associated phenomena (e.g. nanotechnology and nanoparticle) are represented as risks? Articles considered for analysis contain both a word having nano as a constituent and the Swedish words for risk or danger. Articles representing nano-associated phenomena (e.g. nanotechnology and nanoparticle) as risks mainly fall into one of five groups: (I) nanotechnology, without reference to particles, materials or products; (II) nanotechnology, nanoparticles, nanomaterials and/or products containing such particles and materials; (III) nanoparticles in products, but without reference to nanotechnology; (IV) nanotechnology and nanorobots; and (V) non-nanotechnological nanoparticles. For each group, using a theoretical approach addressing the relational nature of risk, the paper analyses representations of objects at risk, bad outcomes, causal conditions, reference to applications and sources cited. Various patterns of these categories emerge for the fi ve groups, indicating a diversi fi ed set of associations between nano and risk. In certain respects, the fi ndings support the results of other studies of media reporting on nanotechnology, suggesting certain international patterns of newspaper coverage of nanotechnology drawing on both science and science fiction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2013
Keyword
nano, risk, newspaper media
National Category
Social Sciences Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180307 (URN)10.1080/13669877.2012.726243 (DOI)000315437500006 ()2-s2.0-84874292187 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160127

Available from: 2016-01-10 Created: 2016-01-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
5. Dis-Ag-reement: the construction and negotiation of risk in the Swedish controversy over antibacterial silver
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dis-Ag-reement: the construction and negotiation of risk in the Swedish controversy over antibacterial silver
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 18, no 1, 93-110 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

What constitutes a potentially hazardous object is often debated. This article analyses the polemic construction and negotiation of risk in the Swedish controversy over the use of antibacterial silver in health care and consumer products. This debate engages the media, government agencies, parliament and government, non-governmental organizations and companies. Texts and websites from these actors were studied using content analysis. Antibacterial silver is construed by some actors as a risk object with harmful effects on a series of objects at risk: the environment, public health, organisms and sewage treatment. In contrast, other actors deny that antibacterial silver is a risk object, instead construing it as mitigating risk. In such a schema, antibacterial silver is conceived of as managing the risk objects of bacteria and micro-organisms, in turn managing the risk objects of infection, bad smell and washing, and in turn helping the environment and public health (objects at risk). The structure of the debate suggests two basic modes of risk communication. First, antibacterial silver is construed as a risk object, endangering a variety of objects at risk, such as organisms, public health, the environment and sewage treatment. Second, this association between antibacterial silver and objects at risk is obstructed, by denying that antibacterial silver is a risk object or by associating silver with the benefit of mitigating risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2015
Keyword
risk communication, controversy, relational theory of risk, antibacterial silver
National Category
Nano Technology Social Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180308 (URN)10.1080/13669877.2013.879492 (DOI)000346840300007 ()2-s2.0-84919463990 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160127

Available from: 2016-01-10 Created: 2016-01-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved

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