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The role of absorption cooling for reaching sustainable energy systems
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The energy consumption is continuous to increase around the world and with that follows the demand for sustainable solutions for future energy systems. With growing energy consumption from fossil based fuels the threat of global warming through release of CO2 to the atmosphere increases. The demand for cooling is also growing which would result in an increased consumption of electricity if the cooling demand was to be fulfilled by electrically driven cooling technology. A more sustainable solution can be to use heat-driven absorption cooling where waste heat may be used as driving energy instead of electricity.

This thesis focuses on the role and potential of absorption cooling in future energy systems. Two types of energy systems are investigated: a district energy system based on waste incineration and a distributed energy system with natural gas as fuel. In both cases, low temperature waste heat is used as driving energy for the absorption cooling. The main focus is to evaluate the absorption technology in an environmental perspective, in terms of reduced CO2 emissions. Economic evaluations are also performed. The reduced electricity when using absorption cooling instead of compression cooling is quantified and expressed as an increased net electrical yield.

The results show that absorption cooling is an environmentally friendly way to produce cooling as it reduces the use of electrically driven cooling in the energy system and therefore also reduces global CO2 emissions. In the small-scale trigeneration system the electricity use is lowered with 84 % as compared to cooling production with compression chillers only. The CO2 emissions can be lowered to 45 CO2/MWhc by using recoverable waste heat as driving heat for absorption chillers. However, the most cost effective cooling solution in a district energy system is a combination between absorption and compression cooling technologies according to the study.

Absorption chillers have the potential to be suitable bottoming cycles for power production in distributed systems. Net electrical yields over 55 % may be reached in some cases with gas motors and absorption chillers. This small-scale system for cogeneration of power and cooling shows electrical efficiencies comparable to large-scale power plants and may contribute to reducing peak electricity demand associated with the cooling demand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2005. , 53 p.
Series
Trita-KET, ISSN 1104-3466 ; 209
Keyword [en]
Chemical engineering, Absorption cooling, trigeneration, district cooling, humidified gas engine, waste heat
Keyword [sv]
Kemiteknik
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-319ISBN: 91-7283-986-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-319DiVA: diva2:8959
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101209Available from: 2005-07-19 Created: 2005-07-19 Last updated: 2010-12-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Systems Study Of Absorption And Compression Chillers In A Combined District Cooling And District Heating System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systems Study Of Absorption And Compression Chillers In A Combined District Cooling And District Heating System
2003 (English)In: in Proceedings of the International Congress of Refrigeration 2003, Washington D.C., August 2003, 2003Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27196 (URN)
Conference
The International Congress of Refrigeration 2003, Washington D.C., August 2003
Note
QC 20101209Available from: 2010-12-09 Created: 2010-12-09 Last updated: 2010-12-09Bibliographically approved
2. System Aspects of Trigeneration based on Humidified Gas Engine with Flue Gas Condensation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System Aspects of Trigeneration based on Humidified Gas Engine with Flue Gas Condensation
(English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442Article in journal (Other academic) Accepted
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27199 (URN)
Note
QS 20120327Available from: 2010-12-09 Created: 2010-12-09 Last updated: 2012-03-27Bibliographically approved
3. Analysis of heat-driven cooling production coupled to power generation for increased electrical yield
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of heat-driven cooling production coupled to power generation for increased electrical yield
2004 (English)In: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Advanced Energy Systems Division (Publication) AES, Anaheim, CA, 2004, Vol. 44, 395-404 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In striving for sustainable energy systems, the development of advanced technologies for combined heat and power generation is a critical factor. In many regions of the world there is a demand for heating only during a small part of the year and the yearly peak of power demand often occurs during the cooling season. Hence, the concept of trigeneration, i.e. the combined generation of power, heat and/or cooling is of great interest when it comes to obtaining a high yearly overall efficiency. In this paper, system studies are used to evaluate different types of trigeneration systems and the potential for an increasing electrical yield. The trigeneration systems consist of different types of gas engines coupled to different types and numbers of absorption chillers. The concepts are compared with regards to: the potential for increasing the overall electrical yield for a plant; cost-effectiveness; and environmental impact in terms of avoided CO2. Results indicate that the use of a humidified gas engine coupled to absorption chillers is a cost-effective and environmentally promising method to increase the electricity yield of a power cycle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Anaheim, CA: , 2004
Keyword
Absorption chiller, Humidified gas engine, Increased electrical yield, Trigeneration, Absorption, Carbon dioxide, Cost effectiveness, Electric power generation, Environmental impact, Gas engines, Absorption chillers, Humidified gas engines, Cooling systems
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27191 (URN)2-s2.0-19544369297 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101209Available from: 2010-12-08 Created: 2010-12-08 Last updated: 2010-12-09Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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