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Turbulent orifice flow in hydropower applications, a numerical and experimental study
KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis reports the methods to simulate flows withcomplex boundary such as orifice flow. The method is forgeneral purposes so that it has been tested on different flowsincluding orifice flow. Also it contains a chapter about theexperiment of orifice flow.

Higher-order precision interpolation schemes are used inumerical simulation to improve prediction at acceptable gridrefinement. Because higher-order schemes cause instability inconvection-diffusion problems or involve a large computationalkernel, they are implemented with deferred correction method. Alower-order scheme such as upwind numerical scheme is used tomake preliminary guess. A deferred (defect) correction term isadded to maintain precision. This avoids the conflict betweenprecision order and implementation difficulty. The authorproposes a shifting between upwind scheme and centraldifference scheme for the preliminary guess. This has beenproven to improve convergence while higher order schemes havewider range of stability.

Non-orthogonal grid is a necessity for complex flow. Usuallyone can map coordinate of such a grid to a transformed domainwhere the grid is regular. The cost is that differentialequations get much more complex form. If calculated directly innon-orthogonal grid, the equations keep simple forms. However,it is difficult to make interpolation in a non-orthogonal grid.Three methods can be used: local correction, shape function andcurvilinear interpolation. The local correction method cannotinsure second-order precision. The shape function method uses alarge computational molecule. The curvilinear interpolationthis author proposes imports the advantage of coordinatetransformation method: easy to do interpolation. A coordinatesystem staggered half control volume used in the coordinatetransformation method is used as accessory to deriveinterpolation schemes. The calculation in physical domain withnon-orthogonal grid becomes as easy as that in a Cartesianorthogonal grid.

The author applies this method to calculate turbulentorifice flow. The usual under-prediction of eddy length isimproved with the ULTRA-QUICK scheme to reflect the highgradients in orifice flow.

In the last chapter, the author quantifies hydraulicabruptness to describe orifice geometry. The abruptness canhelp engineers to interpolate existing data to a new orifice,which saves detailed experiments

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för anläggning och miljö , 2001. , 34 p.
Trita-AMI. PHD, 1047
Keyword [en]
control volume method, numerical scheme, deferred correction, orifice,
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3209OAI: diva2:8986
Public defence
NR 20140805Available from: 2001-09-07 Created: 2001-09-07Bibliographically approved

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