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The unexpected implications of opening up innovation: A multi-perspective study of the role of Open Innovation practices in mature industries
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. Politecnico di Milano, Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3970-7102
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The way firms innovate has notably changed in recent years. A clear example is the manufacturing sector which has been experiencing a new revolution in production and innovation. Linked to this industrial shift, manufacturing firms have been adopting more open and collaborative practices to innovate. This phenomenon, known as Open Innovation (OI), is helping firms to acquire and explore knowledge from external sources (inbound process) and to exploit knowledge via the commercialisation of ideas and technology (outbound process). Even though numerous researchers have studied the adoption of OI and its relation to numerous strategic and organisational results, very few studies have focused on investigating the positive influence of diverse OI approaches and practices on multiple dimensions of firm performance from different angles. These drawbacks hinder the diffusion of OI practices and raise the question of whether it is convenient for any firm in any industry to adopt or not to adopt OI. Thus, this thesis helps to fill this gap by examining the extent to which OI practices are adopted by firms and other actors in unexplored mature manufacturing industries and by understanding the unidentified roles that these practices play in relation to different dimensions of firm and industrial performance. 

This thesis brings together different methodologies and data to investigate OI practices with a novel multi-perspective approach. Hence, OI practices are framed within the industrial context of manufacturing firms in Italy and Sweden, several actors in the food industry, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from the Italian foundry industry, and also within worldwide SMEs designing and producing supercars. More specifically, using data from 247 European manufacturing firms collected through a tailored OI survey, this thesis supports the relevance of internal context characteristics such as firm size and provides evidence of the relation between configurations of OI models and innovation performance. Through two case studies in the food industry, this thesis demonstrates novel forms of OI practices that can be characterised and adopted by different innovation actors within and around this mature industry. Likewise, drawing from 30 rigorous case studies of small and medium-sized foundries, this research for the first time illuminates the relation between the aggregations of some innovation practices (specifically internal R&D and inbound OI) with a contemporarily relevant dimension of environmental and industrial performance such as energy efficiency.

Although foregrounding the practical implications of adopting OI practices, this project also investigates and attempts to contrast some of the theoretical perspectives used when researching OI in mature manufacturing industries. This thesis concludes with an integrative study of the main aspects of the research project to demonstrate the advantages of using a multi-perspective approach to study OI. This last study, originally inspired from two case studies of small carmakers, involved collecting data from 48 small and medium-sized manufacturers of supercars with a survey designed to evaluate OI influence on several types of firm performance. Collectively, the results from this thesis confirm the validity of OI in new research contexts and reveal a combined influence of specific innovation practices on innovativeness, but also on the dimensions of industrial, environmental, and social performance. This thesis contributes to theory and practice by empirically showing that even though OI and the results of practicing it are highly context dependent, adopting OI practices can definitely have a positive influence in the overall performance of firms in mature manufacturing industries, including SMEs and other small actors. 

Abstract [sv]

Det sätt på vilket företagen innoverar har förändrats märkbart under de senaste åren. Den här situationen syns tydligt inom tillverkningssektorn, som upplever en ny produktions- och innovationsrevolution. Med tanke på detta inför tillverkningsföretagen öppnare och mer samarbetsbaserade metoder. Detta fenomen, benämnt öppen innovation (Open Innovation, OI), hjälper organisationer att förvärva och utforska kunskaper från externa källor (ingående process) och att utforska kunskaper genom kommersialisering av idéer och teknik (utgående process). Även om ett flertal forskare har studerat införandet av OI och hur det hänger samman med olika strategiska och organisatoriska resultat, har endast mycket få studier lagt fokus på att undersöka de positiva effekter som olika former av OI-metoder och -praxis har på flera dimensioner av företagens resultat och ur olika synvinklar. Den här bristen hindrar spridningen av OI-praxis och väcker frågan om huruvida det är fördelaktigt för ett företag i en viss bransch att införa eller inte införa OI. Denna avhandling hjälper till att fylla det här tomrummet genom att undersöka i vilken utsträckning öppen innovationspraxis har införts av företag och andra aktörer i outforskade, mogna tillverkningsbranscher och vilka oidentifierade roller sådan praxis spelar i förhållande till olika dimensioner av företagsresultat och branschresultat.

Denna avhandling för samman olika metoder och data för att undersöka OI-praxis ur ett nytt multiperspektiv. Det industriella sammanhanget för studien av OI-praxis är därför tillverkningsföretag i Italien och Sverige, flera aktörer inom livsmedelsindustrin, små och medelstora företag från den italienska gjuteriindustrin samt små och medelstora företag världen över som utformar och tillverkar superbilar. Denna avhandling använder data från 247 europeiska tillverkningsföretag, som samlats in genom en skräddarsydd enkät om öppen innovation, för att bekräfta betydelsen av det interna sammanhangets egenskaper, t.ex. företagets storlek, och lägga fram bevis för relationen mellan OI-modellkonfigurationer och innovationsresultat. Genom två fallstudier inom livsmedelsindustrin visar denna avhandling nya sätt på vilka OI-praxis kan karakteriseras och införas av olika innovationsaktörer inom och omkring den här mogna branschen. Forskningsprojektet utgår även från 30 noggrant genomförda fallstudier av små och medelstora gjuterier för att för första gången belysa relationen mellan samlingar av vissa former av innovationspraxis (nämligen intern FoU och ingående OI) och en samtida relevant dimension av miljö- och branschresultat, t.ex. energieffektivitet.

Detta projekt bildar förgrunden till de praktiska följderna av att införa OI-praxis, men undersöker även och försöker kontrastera till några av de teoretiska perspektiv som används vid forskning kring OI i mogna tillverkningsbranscher. Denna avhandling avslutas med en integrerande studie av forskningsprojektets huvudsakliga aspekter för att påvisa fördelarna med att använda en multiperspektivmetod vid studier av OI. Den sista studien, till vilken inspirationen ursprungligen hämtades från två fallstudier av små biltillverkare, innebar insamling av data från 48 små och medelstora tillverkare av superbilar med en enkät avsedd att utvärdera OI:s påverkan på flera typer av företagsresultat. De sammantagna resultaten från denna avhandling bekräftar OI:s giltighet i nya forskningssammanhang och avslöjar en kombinerad effekt av vissa former av innovationspraxis på innovationsförmåga, men även på dimensionerna industriella, miljömässiga och sociala resultat. Avhandlingen bidrar till teori och praktik genom att empiriskt påvisa att även om OI och resultaten av OI-praxis är starkt kontextberoende, kan införande av OI-praxis säkerligen ha ett positivt inflytande på det totala resultatet för företag i mogna tillverkningsbranscher, däribland små och medelstora företag och andra mindre aktörer.

Abstract [it]

Il modo in cui le imprese stanno innovando è notevolmente cambiato negli ultimi anni. Un chiaro esempio è il settore manifatturiero, che sta reagendo a una nuova rivoluzione nella produzione e innovazione. Collegato a questo cambiamento industriale, le aziende del settore della manifattura stanno acquisendo nuove pratiche più aperte e collaborative per innovare. Questo fenomeno, noto come ‘Open Innovation’ (OI), sta aiutando alle aziende ad acquistare e esplorare le conoscenze dalle fonti esterne (processo ‘inbound’) e di sfruttare la conoscenza tramite la commercializzazione delle idee e delle tecnologie (processo ‘outbound’). Anche se numerosi ricercatori hanno studiato l’adozione della OI e la sua relazione con numerosi risultati strategici ed organizzativi, in pochi studi si sono concentrati sullo studio dell’influenza positiva di diversi approcci e pratiche sulle multipli dimensioni della performance aziendale di diverse angolature della OI. Questi inconvenienti ostacolano la diffusione delle pratiche OI ed evidenziano la questione se è pure conveniente per qualsiasi tipo d’azienda in qualsiasi tipo d’industria adottare o non adottare OI. Così, questa tesi contribuisce a riempire questa lacuna tramite la esaminazione delle misure in cui le pratiche della OI vengono adottate dalle aziende ed altri attori nelle inesplorate industrie mature della manifattura e attraverso la comprensione dei ruoli non identificati che queste pratiche giocano in relazione alle diverse dimensioni della performance aziendale e industriale.

 

Questa tesi mette insieme le diverse metodologie e i dati ad indagare sulle pratiche della OI con un nuovo approccio multi-prospettico. Quindi, le pratiche OI sono inquadrate nel contesto industriale delle aziende manifatturiere in Italia e in Svezia, i diversi attori nel settore alimentare, le piccole e medie imprese (PMI) del settore della fonderia italiana, e anche nelle PMI di tutto il mondo che disegnano e producono i supercars. In particolare, utilizzando i dati di 247 aziende manifatturiere europee raccolti attraverso un sondaggio, questa tesi sostiene la rilevanza delle caratteristiche del contesto interno come la dimensione della azienda e fornisce la prova della relazione tra configurazioni dei modelli OI e la capacità di innovazione. Attraverso due casi di studio nel settore alimentare, questa tesi dimostra delle nuove forme di pratiche OI che possono essere caratterizzate e adottate dai diversi attori dell’innovazione all’interno ed all’intorno di questo settore maturo. Allo stesso modo, raccolto da 30 rigorosi casi di studio delle piccole e delle medie fonderie, questa ricerca per la prima volta illumina la relazione tra le aggregazioni di alcune pratiche di innovazione (in particolare le pratiche interne di R&S e di OI inbound) con una dimensione contemporaneamente rilevante delle prestazioni ambientali ed industriali quali l’efficienza energetica.

 

Anche se in primo piano le implicazioni pratiche dell’adozione delle pratiche della OI sono accentate, il progetto indaga anche e cerca di contrastare alcune delle prospettive teoriche utilizzate nella ricerca nelle mature industrie manifatturiere. Questa tesi finisce con uno studio integrativo degli aspetti principali del progetto di ricerca per dimostrare i vantaggi di utilizzare un approccio multi-prospettiva per studiare la OI. Quest’ultimo studio, originariamente ispirato da due casi di studio di piccole case automobilistiche, ha coinvolto la raccolta dei dati provenienti da 48 piccole e medie produttori di supercars tramite un sondaggio per valutare l’influenza dei diversi tipi di performance aziendale. Collettivamente, i risultati di questa tesi confermano la validità di OI in nuovi contesti di ricerca e rivelano una influenza combinata di pratiche d’innovazione specifica su innovazione, ma anche sulle dimensioni della performance industriale, ambientale e sociale. Questa tesi contribuisce alla teoria e alla pratica, che empiricamente mostra che se anche la OI ed i risultati di praticarla sono molto dipendenti dal contesto, l’adozione delle pratiche OI può sicuramente avere un effetto positivo nelle prestazioni complessive delle aziende nella industria manifatturiere matura, comprese le PMI ed altri piccoli attori.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , xviii, 154 p.
Series
TRITA-IEO, ISSN 1100-7982 ; 2016:01
Keyword [en]
open innovation, practices, innovation performance, industrial performance, sustainability, SMEs, manufacturing sector, automotive industry, foundry industry, food industry
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Engineering and Management
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-181062ISBN: 978-91-7595-848-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-181062DiVA: diva2:898616
Public defence
2016-02-25, E3, Osquarsbacke 14, KTH, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
European Doctorate in Industrial Management
Note

This thesis is produced as part of the EMJD Programme European Doctorate in Industrial Management (EDIM) funded by the European Commission, Erasmus Mundus Action 1.

EDIM is run by a consortium consisting of the industrial management departments of three institutions.

•KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

•Politecnico de Milano, POLIMI, Milan, Italy

•Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, UPM, Madrid, Spain

QC 20160128

Available from: 2016-01-29 Created: 2016-01-27 Last updated: 2016-01-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Which One Goes Well with?: Exploring the Link between Theoretical Perspectives and Research Contexts in Open Innovation Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Which One Goes Well with?: Exploring the Link between Theoretical Perspectives and Research Contexts in Open Innovation Research
2015 (English)In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 213, 1034-1039 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible relation between the most mentioned theoretical perspectives and the most studied research contexts in Open Innovation (OI) literature. To do this, a meta-review of highly cited literature reviews on OI was conducted to identify the most acknowledged theories and contexts. Articles including these concepts were retrieved with the software ‘Publish or Perish’ and analyzed with a qualitative approach to propose some clear relationships. The main results show that researchers apply similar theories to study certain research contexts, and this seems driven by promising publications trends. Altogether, the findings suggest that researchers are following a widening-narrowing approach of the theories and contexts used to study and validate OI. This paper also illustrates managers with relevant contexts e.g. industries, in which OI has been already adopted, motivating the implementation of OI efforts and practices in their practitioners contexts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
Open innovation; Literature review; Theoretical perspectives; Context dependency; Contingencies
National Category
Engineering and Technology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180554 (URN)10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.522 (DOI)000380495800167 ()
External cooperation:
Note

QC 20160125

Available from: 2016-01-18 Created: 2016-01-18 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
2. The role of internal context characteristics on the adoption of Open Innovation: Evidence from manufacturing firms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of internal context characteristics on the adoption of Open Innovation: Evidence from manufacturing firms
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Explaining the concept of Open Innovation (OI) could be less challenging from a theoretical than from a practical perspective. In this sense, while researchers have spent the last decade trying to develop and establish the ideas, models, and theories related to OI, more simple questions related to its practical adoption by firms have been often disregarded. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to contribute filling this gap by investigating the adoption of different types of inbound OI models influence on firm performance under a contingency perspective. With the data collected by an Open Innovation Survey in manufacturing firms, we try to answer the question of how do different configurations of OI models in terms of partner, content, and innovation phase variety influence firm performance when moderated by internal context characteristics. The sample analysed includes the responses of 247 manufacturing firms from Italy and Sweden with different profiles of size and age. Using a mix of approaches to analyse the data we found first, three configurations of OI models, namely: super open innovators, selective collaborators, and conservative collaborators. Contrary to many studies showing that adopting OI does not have a relation with economic performance, we found that in some cases i.e. selective collaborators, firms can adopt OI to some extent and also have a high turnover. Second, we found that medium-sized firms differ from their smaller and larger counterparts in the extent to which they collaborate with partners such as universities, innovation intermediaries and firms from other industries. This study contributes introducing a perspective that integrates partner, content, and innovation phase variety, to understand different ways in which OI models could be adopted by firms. Moreover, this paper provides managerial implications showing that the idea of openness is not a dichotomy of adopting everything-nothing, but as a choice of diverse open degrees consistent with the firm´s context characteristics.

Keyword
openess degree; partner variety; innovation phase variety; content variety; open innovation survey; manufacturing firms
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180555 (URN)
Conference
The 12th International Conference on Industrial Engineering
Note

NQC 201601

Available from: 2016-01-18 Created: 2016-01-18 Last updated: 2016-01-29Bibliographically approved
3. Unravelling the integration mechanisms in open innovation projects: the case of interorganizational networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unravelling the integration mechanisms in open innovation projects: the case of interorganizational networks
2015 (English)In: Journal of Global Strategic Management, ISSN 2042-5805, Vol. 8, no 2, 82-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Strategic Management Society, 2015
Keyword
Open innovation, innovation
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176275 (URN)
Note

QC 20160129

Available from: 2015-11-02 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2016-01-29Bibliographically approved
4. Open Food – Revisiting Open Innovation in the Food Industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Open Food – Revisiting Open Innovation in the Food Industry
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Researchers have claimed that we are in the era of Open Innovation (OI). This idea is supported with the vast evidence of OI adoption in firms from different industries. One industry in which OI has been gradually adopted by firms as an approach to innovate is the Food and Beverage (F&B) industry. Although several studies have investigated the F&B industry under an OI lens, most of them have focused on large firms disregarding the role of other smaller actors. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore how is the adoption of OI ideas influencing initiatives driven by actors other than large F&B firms, in order to complement a larger image of OI adoption in the manufacturing sector. To do this, we analyzed through a qualitative approach several innovative initiatives related to food and created by different types of actors. The main results show that large F&B firms are not the only actors proposing and driving lasting OI initiatives, but also small and medium-sized organizations, foundations, communities, and consumers. Lastly, we propose the concept of open food and provide two exemplars. We conclude with this study implications together with some veins for future research.

Keyword
Open food, open innovation, collaborative innovation, food industry, quadruple innovation helix model, megatrends
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Industrial Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180557 (URN)
Note

QS 2016

Available from: 2016-01-18 Created: 2016-01-18 Last updated: 2016-01-29Bibliographically approved
5. Is Innovation an enabler of Energy Efficiency?: An exploratory study of the foundry sector
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is Innovation an enabler of Energy Efficiency?: An exploratory study of the foundry sector
2014 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, 1191-1195 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using innovation such as new technologies, R&D, or new processes can support Energy Efficiency (EE). Building on this idea, this paper seeks to explore whether a novel approach to foster EE in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) includes improving the overall innovation degree through the adoption of (OI) practices. To do this, a multiple case study with ten firms in Northern Italy operating in energy-intensive industries was conducted. The paper analyses the firm's specific energy consumption, the adoption of energy-efficient technologies, the perception of barriers to EE, and their relation with the firms' internal innovation and OI activities. Main results show that more innovative firms, in terms of internal and inbound innovation, have better EE indicators albeit a lower adoption of energy-efficient technologies or the challenge of economic and technology barriers. Equally, medium-large firms are more innovative and have better EE performance. This study offers preliminary evidence of a relation between certain innovation practices and the rise of EE in SMEs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keyword
Energy Efficiency, Foundry Sector, Innovation, Open Innovation, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168879 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.1051 (DOI)2-s2.0-84922356991 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150610

Available from: 2015-06-10 Created: 2015-06-09 Last updated: 2016-01-29Bibliographically approved
6. Linking energy efficiency and innovation practices: Empirical evidence from the foundry sector
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking energy efficiency and innovation practices: Empirical evidence from the foundry sector
2015 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 83, 240-256 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Europe 2020 strategy currently promotes energy efficiency and innovation through disconnected targets focusing on either energy or R&D. Similar policies indicate that in practice, these two concepts are usually perceived as mutually exclusive. Furthermore, evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between R&D and energy efficiency is still highly limited. This exploratory study aims to address this gap by investigating the link between innovation practices and energy efficiency through a multiple case study of 30 foundries in Northern Italy. We analysed the firms' innovativeness, measured by internal R&D and Open Innovation practices (inbound and outbound), and energy efficiency, measured by specific energy consumption, level of adoption of energy-efficient technologies and barriers to energy efficiency. The results seem to show that those foundries complementing internal R&D with inbound practices have a higher level of energy efficiency, a higher level of adoption of available technologies, and a lower perception of barriers to efficiency improvements. This finding suggests that diversifying innovation practices could lead to better performance with respect to all three indicators of energy efficiency analysed. This study contributes to understanding how more innovative firms can be more energy efficient, providing interesting highlights for managers and policymakers.

Keyword
Energy efficiency, Foundry sector, Innovation practices
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-170330 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2015.02.023 (DOI)2-s2.0-84930085194 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150629

Available from: 2015-06-29 Created: 2015-06-29 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
7. Open Innovation in Specialized SMEs: The Case of Supercars
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Open Innovation in Specialized SMEs: The Case of Supercars
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence that adopting open innovation (OI) has on the innovativeness and performance of specialized small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This paper also examines the adoption of OI within a firm’s practices and models, and within the three dimensions of firm sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach – Survey data from 48 specialized SMEs manufacturing supercars were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). SmartPLS software was used to conduct a path analysis and test the proposed framework.

Findings – The findings suggest that high adoption of OI models (OIM) tends to increase firm innovativeness (INNO). Similarly, the adoption of OI practices (OIP) has a positive effect on INNO but to a lesser extent than OIM. The moderation results of INNO further show that OIM and OIP can benefit the firm performance (FP) of SMEs. Specifically, two dimensions of FP – environmental and social performance – were found to be greatly influenced by OI.

Research limitations/implications – Due to parsimony in the investigated model, this study only focuses on OI adoption as practices and models without considering its drivers or other contingency factors.

Practical implications – This paper could help practitioners in SMEs better understand the benefits of adopting OI to be more innovative but also more sustainable.

Originality/value – This study contributes to the literature on the role of OI practices and models regarding the dimensions of firm sustainability performance by being the first paper to investigate this relationship in the context of small and medium manufacturers of supercars. 

Keyword
Open Innovation, Practices, Models, Firm Performance, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises, Supercars, PLS-SEM.
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Industrial Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180558 (URN)
Note

QS 2016

Available from: 2016-01-18 Created: 2016-01-18 Last updated: 2016-01-29Bibliographically approved

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