Biocatalysis has become a popular technique in organic synthesis due to high activity and selectivity of enzyme catalyzed reactions. Enantioselectivity is a particularly attractive enzyme property, which is utilized for the production of enantiopure substances. Determination of the temperature dependence of enzyme enantioselectivity allows for thermodynamic analyses that reveal the contribution of differential activation enthalpy, ΔR-SΔH‡, and entropy, ΔR-SΔS‡. In the present investigation the influence of substrate structure, variations on enzyme structure and of reaction media on the enantioselectivity of Candida Antarctica lipase B has been studied.
The contribution of enthalpy, ΔR-SΔH‡, and entropy, TΔR-SΔS‡, to the differential free energy, ΔR-SΔG‡, of kinetic resolutions of sec-alcohols were of similar magnitude. Generally the two terms were counteracting, meaning that the enantiomer favored by enthalpy was disfavored by entropy. 3-Hexanol was an exception where the preferred enantiomer was favored both by enthalpy and by entropy. Resolution of 1-bromo-2-butanol revealed non-steric interactions to influence both ΔR-SΔH‡ and ΔR-SΔS‡. Molecular modeling of the spatial freedom of the enzyme-substrate transition state indicated correlation tothe transition state entropy. The acyl chain length was shown to affect enantioselectivity in transesterifications of a sec-alcohol.
Point mutations in the active site were found to decrease or increase enantioselectivity. The changes were caused by partly compensatory changes in both ΔR-SΔH‡ and ΔR-SΔS‡. Studies on single and double mutation variants showed that the observed changes were not additive.
Enantioselectivity was strongly affected by the reaction media. Transesterifications of a sec-alcohol catalyzed by Candida Antarctica lipase B was studied in eight liquidorganic solvents and supercritical carbon dioxide. A correlation of enantioselectivity and the molecular volume of the solvent was found.
Differential activation enthalpy, ΔR-SΔH‡, and entropy, ΔR-SΔS‡, display a compensatory nature. However this compensation is not perfect, which allows for modifications of enantioselectivity. The components of the thermodynamic parameters are highly complex and interdependent but if their roles are elucidated rational design of enantioselective enzymatic processes may be possible.
Stockholm: KTH , 2001. , , 49 p.
Biocatalysis, enzyme catalysis, Candida antarctica lipase B, enantioselectivity, enthalpy, entropy, CALB, enantiomeric ratio