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Molecular Tools for Nucleic Acid Analysis
KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Nucleic acid technology has assumed an essential role invarious areas ofin vitrodiagnostics ranging from infectious diseasediagnosis to human genetics. An important requirement of suchmolecular methods is that they achieve high sensitivity andspecificity with a fast turnaround time in a cost-effectivemanner. To this end, in this thesis we have focused on thedevelopment of sensitive nucleic acid strategies thatfacilitate automation and high-throughput analysis.

The success of nucleic acid diagnostics in the clinicalsetting depends heavily on the method used for purification ofthe nucleic acid target from biological samples. Here we havefocused on developing strategies for hybridisation capture ofsuch templates. Using biosensor technology we observed that thehybridisation efficiency could be improved using contiguousoligonucleotide probes which acted co-operatively. Byimmobilising one of the probes and annealing the second probein solution, we achieved a marked increase in target capturedue to a base stacking effect between nicked oligonucleotidesand/or due to the opening up of secondary structure. Suchco-operatively interacting modular probes were then combinedwith bio-magnetic bead technology to develop a capture systemfor the extraction of hepatitis C RNA from serum. Viral capturewith such co-operatively interacting probes extracted 2-foldmore target as capture with only a single probe achieving asimilar sensitivity to the conventional extraction protocol. Ananalogous strategy was designed to enrich for sequencingproducts prior to gel electrophoresis removing sequencingreagents and template DNA which interfere with the separationand detection of sequencing ladders, especially in the case ofcapillary gel electrophoresis. This protocol facilitates highthroughput clean-up of cycle sequencing reactions resulting inaccurate sequence data at a low cost, which is a pre-requisitefor large-scale genome sequencing products.

Currently, a large effort is directed towards differentialsequencing to identify mutations or polymorphisms both in theclinical laboratory and in medical genetics. Inexpensive, highthroughput methods are therefore required to rapidly screen atarget nucleic acid for sequence based changes. In the clinicalsetting, sequence analysis of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV-1) is used to determine the presence of drug resistancemutations. Here we describe a bioluminometric pyrosequencingapproach to rapidly screen for the presence of drug resistancemutations in the protease gene of HIV-1. This sequencingstrategy can analyse the protease gene of HIV-1 from eightpatients in less than an hour and such non-gel based approachesshould be useful in the future in a clinical setting for rapid,robust mutation detection.

Microarray technology facilitates large-scalemutation/polymorphism detection and here we developed amicroarray based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)genotyping strategy based on apyrase mediated allele specificextension (AMASE). AMASE exploits the fact that mismatchedprimers exhibit slower reaction kinetics than perfectly matchedprimers by including a nucleotide degrading enzyme (apyrase)which results in degradation of the nucleotides before themismatched primer can be extended. We have successfully typed200 genotypes (14% were incorrect without apyrase) by AMASEwhich cluster into three distinct groups representing the threepossible genotypes. In the future, AMASE on DNA microarraysshould facilitate association studies where an accuracy>99%is required.

Keywords:nucleic acid capture, modular probes,biosensor, bio-magnetic separation, hepatitis C, sequencing,pyrosequencing, mutation detection, HIV-1, drug resistance,SNP, allele-specific extension, apyrase, genotyping.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Bioteknologi , 2001. , 71 p.
Keyword [en]
nucleic acid capture, modular probes, biosensor, bio-magnetic separation, hepatitis C, sequencing, pyrosequencing, mutation detection, HIV-1, drug resistance, SNP, allele-specific extension, apyrase, genotyping.
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3220ISBN: 91-7283-161-8OAI: diva2:8999
Public defence
NR 20140805Available from: 2001-09-21 Created: 2001-09-21Bibliographically approved

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