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Heavy-Duty Vehicle Platooning: Modeling and Analysis
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Coupled with the growth of world economy, the demand for freight transport has escalated and will continue to do so. As the traffic intensity increases, the pressure on infrastructure, energy usage and environment becomes higher than ever. Meanwhile, the number of traffic accidents is also increasing year by year as a result. Heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) platooning makes a group of HDVs driving closely after each other.It is one potential solution to improve transport efficiency, traffic safety and fuel economy. Even though there have been extensive studies on the platooning system and corresponding fuel saving, some of the research areas, such as coordination strategies of platooning, platoon operations and the impacts of HDV platooning on trafficflow are still left open. Under a futuristic scenario where a large number of HDVswill be operating in one or several platoons on highway, how to group HDVs intoa platoon and how to select spacing policies for HDV platooning are essential forautomobile manufacturers, fleet operators and transport planners. Therefore, theformation strategies and operations of HDV platoons, as well as the impacts of HDVplatooning on traffic flow have to be carefully investigated.

This thesis presents contributions to the modeling of HDV platooning and simulationof HDV platoon operations. The focus lies mainly on analytical formulation ofspeed-density relation of mixed traffic flow and development of simulation frameworkfor study of HDV platooning. On the one hand, a three-regime speed-density relationis proposed to describe the mixed traffic flow consisting of HDVs and passengercars. The proposed speed-density relation incorporates percentage of HDVs, trafficdensity and spacing policy of HDV platoons as input variables and delivers aggregatehighway velocity as output. By comparing the traffic throughput of no HDV platooningscenario, grouping HDVs into platoon using constant vehicle spacing policy orconstant time gap policy results in significant improvement in highway capacity. On the other hand, a simulation framework is developed for implementation of differentHDV platoon operations. The platoon formation of two HDVs and disaggregation ofa five-HDV platoon at off-ramp are simulated on a two-lane highway. The simulationoutcomes show that HDV platoon formation is more favorable in light and mediumtraffic; disaggregation of a long HDV platoon at off-ramp improves the averagespeed of passenger vehicles considerably at high traffic flow rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , xiv, 49 p.
Series
TRITA-TSC-LIC, ISSN 1653-445X ; 15:005
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-181934ISBN: 978-91-87353-83-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-181934DiVA: diva2:901974
Presentation
2016-03-08, Ångloket, Teknikringen 10, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160210

Available from: 2016-02-10 Created: 2016-02-09 Last updated: 2016-02-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A General Simulation Framework for Modeling andAnalysis of Heavy-Duty Vehicle Platooning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A General Simulation Framework for Modeling andAnalysis of Heavy-Duty Vehicle Platooning
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Platooning heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) on highway is a method of improving energy and transport efficiency. On the one hand, HDV platoon driving in small inter-vehicle distances could increase highway capacity; on the other hand, HDVs traveling in small inter-vehicle distances experience significant air -drag reduction and therefore, improve fuel efficiency. However, the majority of research has been conducted on the development of platoon system, very few studies have focused on quantification of the impacts of HDV platooning on traffic flow. This paper initializes a simulation framework to facilitate the study of HDVplatooning and establishes corresponding concept and operations.The longitudinal driving behaviors of HDV platoons is modeled in detail considering the acceleration capability of HDV. The proposed framework is applied in three experimental cases, the first case is to study the impacts of HDV platoons on traffic flow, and the second and third cases are about the influence of traffic on HDV platoon formation. In the first case, simulation outcomes show that increasing percentage of HDV platooning in traffic flow generally results in more dramatic improvements in traffic efficiency while preserving traffic safety for passenger vehicles; in the second and third cases, for the HDV platoon formation, deceleration of the first HDV in low speed during platoon formation will increase the formation time to a large extent in medium and heavy traffic.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-181929 (URN)
Projects
iQFleet
Note

QS 2016

Available from: 2016-02-09 Created: 2016-02-09 Last updated: 2016-02-10Bibliographically approved
2. The Impacts of Heavy-Duty Vehicle Platoon Spacing Policy on Traffic Flow
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impacts of Heavy-Duty Vehicle Platoon Spacing Policy on Traffic Flow
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Spacing policy of heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) platoons determines the inter-vehicle distance between HDVs in steady state. It plays an important role in traffic throughput. For example, an HDV platoon with small spacing policies saves space on the highway so that it can accommodate more vehicles. Therefore, the traffic efficiency and highway capacity may be improved by applying small spacing policies on HDV platoons. Conversely, an HDVplatoon with larger spacing policies requires more space on highways and thus has a negative impact on capacity.This paper specifically focuses on two commonly used spacing policies in HDV platooning, constant vehicle spacing (CVS) and constant time gap (CTG) and investigates respective impacts on traffic flow. The speed-density relation of mixed traffic flow is formulated as a function of traffic density, the percentage of HDVs on highway and spacing policy of HDV platoon. In order to investigate the effects of HDV platooning to vehicle interaction, the speed-density relation is derived from car-following model. Numerical results show that HDV platooning with CVSpolicy yields the most significant improvement in highway capacity, compared with no HDV platooning scenario and HDV platooning with CTG policy. However, it has worse performance in heavily congested traffic flows thanCTG policy. A mixed CVS-CTG policy is therefore proposed in this study, in order to combine the benefits fromCVS and CTG policies to traffic flow. This mixed spacing policy could be a promising alternative to the single spacing policy.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-181930 (URN)
Note

QS 2016

Available from: 2016-02-09 Created: 2016-02-09 Last updated: 2016-02-10Bibliographically approved
3. A Constant Spacing Policy for Heavy-Duty VehiclePlatoon Disaggregation at Highway Off-Ramp
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Constant Spacing Policy for Heavy-Duty VehiclePlatoon Disaggregation at Highway Off-Ramp
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Platooning heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) on highways using cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) can significantly reduce fuel consumption and improve traffic throughput.HDVs operating with small inter-vehicle distances reduce aerodynamic resistance considerably. However, HDV platoons can also have negative impacts on traffic flow when they hinder lane changing at highway off-ramps. This study investigates whether disaggregation of HDV platoons benefits traffic flow at highway off-ramps. A modified constant spacing policy is applied forHDV platoon disaggregation. The feasible region of the CACCparameters is derived based on an analysis of asymptotic stability, driving safety, and HDV acceleration and braking capabilities.The proposed HDV platoon disaggregation strategy at highway off-ramps is implemented and simulated in a microscopic traffic simulation package. According to the simulation outcomes, a disaggregation of HDV platoons at off-ramps leads to significant average speed improvements at high traffic flow rates.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-181931 (URN)
Note

QS 2016

Available from: 2016-02-09 Created: 2016-02-09 Last updated: 2016-02-10Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
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  • vancouver
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Language
  • de-DE
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  • fi-FI
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  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
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Output format
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