Areas with hard water and high concentrations of calcium and magnesium have shown lower incidence rates of diseases, for example, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, cancer, and diabetes, magnesium often identified as most important. However, the effect evens itself out at too high levels. On the other hand, acidic and soft water may be harmful for the body. Other minerals than calcium and magnesium are also important. Thus, elevated bicarbonate counteracts metabolic acidosis, and sulfate is active against constipation but causes diarrhea at too high levels. Water softeners can provide sodium levels of over 300 mg/L and cause elevated blood pressure. Since too little and too much is as bad, suggested ranges of the macrominerals and element ratios are presented in the chapter.
Springer, 2015. 33-52 p.