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Hydroconversion of paraffinic wax over platinum and palladium catalysts supported on silica–alumina
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5815-960X
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
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2016 (English)In: Catalysis Today, ISSN 0920-5861, E-ISSN 1873-4308, Vol. 275, 141-148 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Abstract [en]

Two bifunctional catalysts consisting of platinum or palladium supported on amorphous silica–alumina were prepared and tested in hydrocracking/hydroisomerization of paraffinic wax. The performance of both noble metals was studied at the following reaction conditions: P = 35 bar; T = 300–330 °C; H2/wax = 0.1 wt/wt; WHSV = 1–4 h−1. The platinum sample was more active in hydrocracking of C22+ compounds and more selective to middle distillates. On the other hand, the palladium-based catalyst resulted in a higher isomerization degree of the products and lower amounts of methane and ethane. The higher production of light compounds over platinum is attributed to a monofunctional hydrogenolysis mechanism, in addition to the classical bifunctional route. Characterization studies showed that both catalysts had comparable metal and acid site distributions. These observations would indicate that the different catalyst performance is due to the different nature of platinum and palladium as hydrogenation/dehydrogenation function.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 275, 141-148 p.
Keyword [en]
Hydrocracking, Hydroisomerization, Wax, Fischer–Tropsch, Platinum, Palladium
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-182348DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2015.11.026ISI: 000382420300020OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-182348DiVA: diva2:904224
Note

QC 20160926

Available from: 2016-02-18 Created: 2016-02-18 Last updated: 2016-09-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Climate change is one of the biggest global threats of the 21st century. Fossil fuels constitute by far the most important energy source for transportation and the different governments are starting to take action to promote the use of cleaner fuels.

Biomass-derived fuels are a promising alternative for diversifying fuel sources, reducing fossil fuel dependency and abating greenhouse gas emissions. The research interest has quickly shifted from first-generation biofuels, obtained from food commodities, to second-generation biofuels, produced from non-food resources.

The subject of this PhD thesis is the production of second-generation biofuels via thermochemical conversion: biomass is first gasified to synthesis gas, a mixture of mainly H2 and CO; synthesis gas can then be catalytically converted to different fuels. This work summarizes six publications, which are focused on the synthesis gas conversion step.

Two processes are principally examined in this summary. The first part of the PhD thesis is devoted to the synthesis of ethanol and higher alcohols, which can be used as fuel or fuel additives. The microemulsion technique is applied in the synthesis of molybdenum-based catalysts, achieving a yield enhancement. Methanol cofeeding is also studied as a way of boosting the production of longer alcohols, but a negative effect is obtained: the main outcome of methanol addition is an increase in methane production.

The second part of the PhD thesis addresses wax hydroconversion, an essential upgrading step in the production of middle-distillate fuels via Fischer-Tropsch. Bifunctional catalysts consisting of noble metals supported on silica-alumina are considered. The deactivation of a platinum-based catalyst is investigated, sintering and coking being the main causes of decay. A comparison of platinum and palladium as catalyst metal function is also carried out, obtaining a fairly different catalytic performance of the materials in terms of conversion and selectivity, very likely due to dissimilar hydrogenation power of the metals. Finally, a kinetic model based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson formalism is proposed to describe the hydroconversion reactions, attaining a good fitting of the experimental data.

Abstract [sv]

Klimatförändringarna är ett av de största globala hoten under det tjugoförsta århundradet. Fossila bränslen utgör den helt dominerande energikällan för transporter och många länder börjar stödja användning av renare bränslen.

Bränslen baserade på biomassa är ett lovande alternativ för att diversifiera råvarorna, reducera beroendet av fossila råvaror och undvika växthusgaser. Forskningsintresset har snabbt skiftat från första generationens biobränslen som erhölls från mat-råvaror till andra generationens biobränslen producerade från icke ätbara-råvaror.

Ämnet för denna doktorsavhandling är produktion av andra generationens biobränslen via termokemisk omvandling. Biomassa förgasas först till syntesgas, en blandning av i huvudsak vätgas och kolmoxid; syntesgasen kan sedan katalytiskt omvandlas till olika bränslen. Detta arbete sammanfattar sex publikationer som fokuserar på steget för syntesgasomvandling.

Två processer är i huvudsak undersökta i denna sammanfattning. Den första delen av doktorsavhandlingen ägnas åt syntes av etanol och högre alkoholer som kan användas som bränsle eller bränsletillsatser. Mikroemulsionstekniken har använts vid framställningen av molybden-baserade katalysatorer, vilket gav en höjning av utbytet. Tillsatsen av metanol har också studerats som ett sätt att försöka få en högre koncentration av högre alkoholer, men en negativ effekt erhölls: huvudeffekten av metanoltillsatsen är en ökad metanproduktion.

Den andra delen av doktorsavhandlingen handlar om vätebehandling av vaxer som ett viktigt upparbetningssteg vid framställning av mellandestillat från Fischer-Tropsch processen. Bifunktionella katalysatorer som består av ädelmetaller deponerade på silica-alumina valdes. Deaktiveringen av en platinabaserad katalysator undersöktes. Sintring och koksning var huvudorsakerna till deaktiveringen. En jämförelse mellan platina och palladium som funktionella metaller genomfördes också med resultatet att det var en ganska stor skillnad mellan materialens katalytiska egenskaper vilket gav olika omsättning och selektivitet, mycket sannolikt beroende på olika reaktionsmönster hos metallerna vid vätebehandling. Slutligen föreslås en kinetisk modell baserad på en Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson modell för att beskriva reaktionerna vid vätebehandling. Denna modell ger en god anpassning till experimentella data.

Abstract [es]

El cambio climático es una de las mayores amenazas del siglo XXI. Los combustibles fósiles constituyen actualmente la fuente de energía más importante para el transporte, por lo que los diferentes gobiernos están empezando a tomar medidas para promover el uso de combustibles más limpios.

Los combustibles derivados de biomasa son una alternativa prometedora para diversificar las fuentes de energía, reducir la dependencia de los combustibles fósiles y disminuir las emisiones de efecto invernadero. Los esfuerzos de los investigadores se han dirigido en los últimos años a los biocombustibles de segunda generación, producidos a partir de recursos no alimenticios.

El tema de esta tesis de doctorado es la producción de biocombustibles de segunda generación mediante conversión termoquímica: en primer lugar, la biomasa se gasifica y convierte en gas de síntesis, una mezcla formada mayoritariamente por hidrógeno y monóxido de carbono; a continuación, el gas de síntesis puede transformarse en diversos biocombustibles. Este trabajo resume seis publicaciones, centradas en la etapa de conversión del gas de síntesis. Dos procesos se estudian con mayor detalle.

En la primera parte de la tesis se investiga la producción de etanol y alcoholes largos, que pueden ser usados como combustible o como aditivos para combustible. La técnica de microemulsión se aplica en la síntesis de catalizadores basados en molibdeno, consiguiendo un incremento del rendimiento. Además, se introduce metanol en el sistema de reacción para intentar aumentar la producción de alcoholes más largos, pero los efectos obtenidos son negativos: la principal consecuencia es el incremento de la producción de metano.

La segunda parte de la tesis estudia la hidroconversión de cera, una etapa esencial en la producción de destilados medios mediante Fischer-Tropsch. Los catalizadores estudiados son bifuncionales y consisten en metales nobles soportados en sílice-alúmina. La desactivación de un catalizador de platino se investiga, siendo la sinterización y la coquización las principales causas del problema. El uso de platino y paladio como componente metálico se compara, obteniendo resultados catalíticos bastante diferentes, tanto en conversión como en selectividad, probablemente debido a su diferente capacidad de hidrogenación. Finalmente, se propone un modelo cinético, basado en el formalismo de Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson, que consigue un ajuste satisfactorio de los datos experimentales.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. xiv, 91 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2016:9
Keyword
biofuels, Fischer-Tropsch wax, higher alcohols, hydroconversion, kinetic modelling, methanol cofeeding, microemulsion, MoS2, noble metal, syngas
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-182690 (URN)978-91-7595-862-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-15, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160308

Available from: 2016-03-08 Created: 2016-02-22 Last updated: 2016-03-08Bibliographically approved

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