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Reactive control and coordination of redundant robotic systems
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4032-4830
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Redundant robotic systems, in terms of manipulators with one or twoarms, mobile manipulators, and multi-agent systems, have received an in-creasing amount of attention in recent years. In this thesis we describe severalways to improve robotic system performance by exploiting the redundancy.

As the robot workspace becomes increasingly dynamic, it is common towork with imperfect geometric models of the robots or its workspace. Inorder to control the robot in a robust way in the presence of geometric uncer-tainties, we propose to assess the stability of our controller with respect to acertain task by deriving bounds on the geometric uncertainties. Preliminaryexperimental results support the fact that stability is ensured if the proposedbounds on the geometric uncertainties are fulfilled.

As a non-contact measurement, computer vision could provide rich infor-mation for robot control. We introduce a two step method that transformsthe position-based visual servoing problem into a quadratic optimization prob-lem with linear constraints. This method is optimal in terms of minimizinggeodesic distance and allows us to integrate constraints, e.g. visibility con-straints, in a natural way.

In the case of a single robot with redundant degrees of freedom, we canspecify a family of complex robotic tasks using constraint based programming(CBP). CBP allows us to represent robotic tasks with a set of equality andinequality constraints. Using these constraints we can formulate quadraticprogramming problems that exploit the redundancy of the robot and itera-tively resolve the trade-off between the different constraints. For example, wecould improve the velocity or force transmission ratios along a task-dependent direction using the priorities between different constraints in real time.

Using the reactiveness of CBP, we formulated and implemented a dual-armpan cleaning task. If we mount a dual-arm robot on a mobile base, we proposeto use a virtual kinematic chain to specify the coordination between the mobilebase and two arms. Using the modularity of the CBP, we can integrate themobility and dual-arm manipulation by adding coordination constraints intoan optimization problem where dual-arm manipulation constraints are alreadyspecified. We also found that the reactiveness and modularity of the CBPapproach is important in the context of teleoperation. Inspired by the 3Ddesign community, we proposed a teleoperation interface control mode thatis identical to the ones being used to locally navigate the virtual viewpoint ofmost Computer Aided Design (CAD) softwares.

In the case of multiple robots, we combine ideas from multi-agent coopera-tive coverage control, with problem formulations from the resource allocationfield, to create a distributed convergent approach to the resource positioningproblem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , xii, 62 p.
Series
TRITA-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2016:05
Keyword [en]
reactive control, dual-arm manipulation, mobile manipulation, ambulance positioning.
National Category
Robotics Control Engineering Computer Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-182680ISBN: 978-91-7595-870-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-182680DiVA: diva2:905537
Public defence
2016-03-22, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160224

Available from: 2016-02-24 Created: 2016-02-22 Last updated: 2016-02-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Dual Arm Manipulation using ConstraintBased Programming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dual Arm Manipulation using ConstraintBased Programming
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 19th World CongressThe International Federation of Automatic Control / [ed] Boje, Edward, Xia, Xiaohua, 2014, Vol. 19, 311-319 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present a technique for online generation of dual arm trajectories using constraint based programming based on bound margins. Using this formulation, we take both equality and inequality constraints into account, in a way that incorporates both feedback and feedforward terms, enabling e.g. tracking of timed trajectories in a new way. The technique is applied to a dual arm manipulator performing a bi-manual task. We present experimental validation of the approach, including comparisons between simulations and real experiments of a complex bimanual tracking task. We also show how to add force feedback to the framework, to account for modeling errors in the systems. We compare the results with and without feedback, and show how the resulting trajectory is modified to achieve the prescribed interaction forces.

Keyword
Robots manipulators; Motion Control Systems; Intelligent robotics
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-165621 (URN)10.3182/20140824-6-ZA-1003.00126 (DOI)
Conference
The 19th IFAC world congress
Projects
European Union FP7 project RoboHow.Cog
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-ICT-288533Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20150630

Available from: 2015-04-29 Created: 2015-04-29 Last updated: 2016-02-24Bibliographically approved
2. Whole body control of a dual-arm mobile robot using a virtual kinematic chain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Whole body control of a dual-arm mobile robot using a virtual kinematic chain
Show others...
2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-182899 (URN)
Conference
The 19th IFAC world congress
Note

QS 2016

Available from: 2016-02-24 Created: 2016-02-24 Last updated: 2016-02-24Bibliographically approved
3. Singularity analysis of closed-loop inverse kinematics algorithms with respect to manipulator geometric uncertainties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Singularity analysis of closed-loop inverse kinematics algorithms with respect to manipulator geometric uncertainties
2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-182901 (URN)
Conference
The 19th IFAC world congress
Note

QS 2016

Available from: 2016-02-24 Created: 2016-02-24 Last updated: 2016-02-24Bibliographically approved
4. Adaptive object centered teleoperation control of a mobile manipulator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive object centered teleoperation control of a mobile manipulator
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, 455-461 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Teleoperation of a mobile robot manipulating and exploring an object shares many similarities with the manipulation of virtual objects in a 3D design software such as AutoCAD. The user interfaces are however quite different, mainly for historical reasons. In this paper we aim to change that, and draw inspiration from the 3D design community to propose a teleoperation interface control mode that is identical to the ones being used to locally navigate the virtual viewpoint of most Computer Aided Design (CAD) softwares.

The proposed mobile manipulator control framework thus allows the user to focus on the 3D objects being manipulated, using control modes such as orbit object and pan object, supported by data from the wrist mounted RGB-D sensor. The gripper of the robot performs the desired motions relative to the object, while the manipulator arm and base moves in a way that realizes the desired gripper motions. The system redundancies are exploited in order to take additional constraints, such as obstacle avoidance, into account, using a constraint based programming framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
Series
Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ISSN 1050-4729
Keyword
virtual object, mobile manipulation, teleoperation
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-182902 (URN)10.1109/ICRA.2016.7487166 (DOI)000389516200057 ()2-s2.0-84977527389 (Scopus ID)9781467380263 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Stockholm, May 16-21, 2016
Projects
TRADR
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-ICT-609763 TRADR
Note

QC 20160829

Available from: 2016-02-24 Created: 2016-02-24 Last updated: 2017-01-19Bibliographically approved
5. A Distributed Convergent Solution to the Ambulance Positioning Problem on a Streetmap Graph
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Distributed Convergent Solution to the Ambulance Positioning Problem on a Streetmap Graph
2014 (English)In: / [ed] Boje, Edward, Xia, Xiaohua, IFAC Papers Online, 2014, Vol. 19, 9190-9196 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we combine ideas from multi-agent cooperative coverage control, with problem formulations from the resource allocation field, to create a distributed convergent approach to the ambulance positioning problem. Inspired by coverage control we use the graph version of so-called Voronoi regions, making the solution distributed and reactive, thereby freeing computational resources. The solution is distributed in the sense that each vehicle only needs to know the positions of its neighbors, and the computations of each vehicle only depend on the size of its Voronoi region/set. This implies that considering a problem of twice the size, using twice the number of vehicles will leave the computational load per vehicle unchanged. The freed resources are used to capture the allocation problem in more detail: maximizing an estimate of the victim survival probability instead of more coarse measures of ambulance availability. Using real city street map data from OpenStreetMap (OSM), we provide simulation results illustrating the applicability of our approach. Finally, we prove that the proposed distributed algorithm is convergent in the sense that it finds a local optimum in finite time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IFAC Papers Online, 2014
Keyword
Coordination of multiple vehicle systems; Multi-agent systems; Distributed control and estimation
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-165678 (URN)10.3182/20140824-6-ZA-1003.00115 (DOI)
Conference
The 19th IFAC world congress, Cape Town, August 24-29, 2014
Projects
European Union FP7 project Robo- How.Cog
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-ICT-288533Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Note

QC 20150507

Available from: 2015-04-29 Created: 2015-04-29 Last updated: 2016-02-24Bibliographically approved
6. A transformation of the Position Based Visual Servoing Problem into a convex optimization problem
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A transformation of the Position Based Visual Servoing Problem into a convex optimization problem
2012 (English)In: 2012 IEEE 51st Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), IEEE , 2012, 5673-5678 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Here we address the problem of moving a camera from an initial pose to a final pose. The trajectory between the two poses is subject to constraints on the camera motion and the visibility, where we have bounds on the allowed velocities and accelerations of the camera and require that a set of point features are visible for the camera. We assume that the pose is possible to retrieve from the observations of the point features, i.e., we have a Position Based Visual Servoing Problem with constraints. We introduce a two step method that transforms the problem into a convex optimization problem with linear constraints. In the first step the rotational motion is restricted to be of a certain type. This restriction allows us to retrieve an explicit solution of the rotational motion that is optimal in terms of minimizing geodesic distance. Furthermore, this restriction guarantees that the rotational motion satisfies the constraints. Using the explicit solution, we can formulate a convex optimization problem for the translational motion, where we include constraints on workspace and visibility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Series
Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, ISSN 0191-2216
Keyword
Camera motions, Convex optimization problems, Explicit solutions, Geodesic distances, Linear constraints, Point features, Position based visual servoing, Rotational motion, Translational motions, Two step method
National Category
Other Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-118868 (URN)10.1109/CDC.2012.6426022 (DOI)000327200405155 ()2-s2.0-84874261523 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-2066-5 (ISBN)
Conference
51st IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2012; Maui, HI; United States; 10 December 2012 through 13 December 2012
Note

QC 20130304

Available from: 2013-03-04 Created: 2013-03-04 Last updated: 2016-02-24Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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Output format
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