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Cytokines Induce Faster Membrane Diffusion of MHC Class I and the Ly49A Receptor in a Subpopulation of Natural Killer Cells
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
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2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Abstract [en]

Cytokines have the potential to drastically augment immune cell activity. Apart from altering the expression of a multitude of proteins, cytokines also affect immune cell dynamics. However, how cytokines affect the molecular dynamics within the cell membrane of immune cells has not been addressed previously. Molecular movement is a vital component of all biological processes, and the rate of motion is, thus, an inherent determining factor for the pace of such processes. Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes, which belong to the innate immune system. By fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we investigated the influence of cytokine stimulation on the membrane density and molecular dynamics of the inhibitory receptor Ly49A and its ligand, the major histocompatibility complex class I allele H-2D(d), in freshly isolated murine NK cells. H-2D(d) was densely expressed and diffused slowly in resting NK cells. Ly49A was expressed at a lower density and diffused faster. The diffusion rate in resting cells was not altered by disrupting the actin cytoskeleton. A short-term stimulation with interleukin-2 or interferon- alpha + beta did not change the surface density of moving H-2D(d) or Ly49A, despite a slight upregulation at the cellular level of H-2D(d) by interferon-alpha + beta, and of Ly49A by IL-2. However, the molecular diffusion rates of both H-2D(d) and Ly49A increased significantly. A multivariate analysis revealed that the increased diffusion was especially marked in a subpopulation of NK cells, where the diffusion rate was increased around fourfold compared to resting NK cells. After IL-2 stimulation, this subpopulation of NK cells also displayed lower density of Ly49A and higher brightness per entity, indicating that Ly49A may homo-cluster to a larger extent in these cells. A faster diffusion of inhibitory receptors could enable a faster accumulation of these molecules at the immune synapse with a target cell, eventually leading to a more efficient NK cell response. It has previously been assumed that cytokines regulate immune cells primarily via alterations of protein expression levels or posttranslational modifications. These findings suggest that cytokines may also modulate immune cell efficiency by increasing the molecular dynamics early on in the response.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers , 2016. Vol. 7
Keyword [en]
major histocompatibility complex, natural killer cells, molecular dynamics, cytokine, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, plasma membrane, Ly49 receptors, molecular diffusion
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-183193DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2016.00016ISI: 000369419100001ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84961644940OAI: diva2:908913

QC 20160303

Available from: 2016-03-03 Created: 2016-03-03 Last updated: 2016-03-11Bibliographically approved

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Spielmann, ThiemoWidengren, Jerker
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