Gallium arsenide based buried heterostructure laser diodes with aluminium-free semi-insulating materials regrowth
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Semiconductor lasers based on gallium arsenide and relatedmaterials are widely used in applications such as opticalcommunication systems, sensing, compact disc players, distancemeasurement, etc. The performance of these lasers can beimproved using a buried heterostructure offering lateralcarrier and optical confinement. In particular, if theconfinement (burying) layer is implemented by epitaxialregrowth of an appropriate aluminium-free semi-insulating (SI)material, passivation of etched surfaces, reduced tendency tooxidation, low capacitance and integration feasibility areadditional advantages.
The major impediment in the fabrication of GaAs/AlGaAsburied-heterostructure lasers is the spontaneous oxidation ofaluminium on the etched walls of the structure. Al-oxide actsas a mask and makes the regrowth process extremely challenging.In this work, a HCl gas-basedin-situcleaning technique is employed successfully toremove Al-oxide prior to regrowth of SI-GaInP:Fe and SI-GaAs:Fearound Al-containing laser mesas by Hydride Vapour PhaseEpitaxy. Excellent regrowth interfaces, without voids, areobtained, even around AlAs layers. Consequences of usinginadequate cleaning treatments are also presented. Regrowthmorphology aspects are discussed in terms of different growthmechanisms.
Time-resolved photoluminescence characterisation indicates auniform Fe trap distribution throughout the regrown GaInP:Fe.Scanning capacitance microscopy measurements demonstrate thesemi-insulating nature of the regrown GaInP:Fe layer. Thepresence of EL2 defects in regrown GaAs:Fe makes more difficultthe interpretation of the characterisation results in the nearvicinity of the laser mesa.
GaAs/AlGaAs buried-heterostructure lasers, both in-planelasers and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, withGaInP:Fe as burying layer are demonstrated for the first time.The lasers exhibit good performance demonstrating thatSI-GaInP:Fe is an appropriate material to be used for thispurpose and the suitability of our cleaning and regrowth methodfor the fabrication of this type of semiconductor lasers.Device characterisation indicates negligible leakage currentalong the etched mesa sidewalls confirming a smooth regrowthinterface. Nevertheless, experimental and simulation resultsreveal that a significant part of the injected current is lostas leakage through the burying material. This is attributed todouble carrier injection into the SI-GaInP:Fe layer.Simulations also predict that the function of GaInP:Fe ascurrent blocking layer should be markedly improved in the caseof GaAs-based longer wavelength lasers.
Keywords:semiconductor lasers, in-plane lasers, VCSELs,GaAs, GaInP, semi-insulating materials, hydride vapour phaseepitaxy, regrowth, buried heterostructure, leakage current,simulation.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kista: Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik , 2002. , xiv, 89 p.
Trita-HMA, ISSN 1404-0379 ; 2002:1
semiconductor lasers, in-plane lasers, VCSELs, GaAs, GaInP, semi-insulating materials, hydride vapour phase epitaxy, regrowth, buried heterostructure, leakage current, simulation
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3305ISBN: 1404-0379OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-3305DiVA: diva2:9091
NR 201408052002-02-212002-02-21Bibliographically approved